Hell Really Exists

Hell Really Exists

Koonika Miidu is the author and the creator of this helpful program. The author of this program wants to show you that the Hell really exists and no one can change that reality. Though, he believes there's a way you can be saved from it and that is exactly what this program is all about. The program contains a lot of information to help you discover the confirmed facts about hell. There are testimonies from people that have visited hell and come back. Those are the people that want to show you the reality and also advise you to stop gambling with your soul. It is very easy to be convinced that this program is for Christians only. Hell is not for a specific religion. As a matter of fact, every person regardless of their religious background should take caution. The Hell Really Exists program is available in downloadable PDF formats. This means you need an Adobe Acrobat reader so you will be able to download and read it. As a matter of fact, you will get some other DVD format programs with testimonies from over 70 people that wishes to help you along the way. Read more...

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Creativity Consciousness and Culture

Most Asian, African, and Native American traditions also used creative imagination to enrich and enhance everyday life novel, original contributions were typically seen as gifts from deities or spirits who used humans as 'channels'. Yet in some of these societies an individual who produced something unprecedented (e.g., an unusual mask) was censured for breaking with tradition talented craftspeople were valued, but individuals with a flair for novelty were chastised. When the church's power was dominant, Western cultures tended to consider 'channeling' as demonic once 'enlightened' science and medicine prevailed, such forms of experience were cast in psychopathological terms. By contrast, traditional Eastern cultures such as Hinduism and Buddhism had intricate vocabularies to describe the spiritual aspects of changes in consciousness. Many tribal people go through the day in what Westerners would consider a well-organized hallucination, since the world they believe and live in bears...

Concepts of Disease in East Asia

Disease thus first appears in China embodied in dangerous others, as a menace from without. After the Shang dynasty, the focus of concern would broaden and shift from disgruntled ancestors to parasites and poisons, demons and witchcraft spells. But whomever or whatever the Chinese accused of inspiring sickness, the defining feature of the earliest conceptions of disease was their independence from a conception of the body. In other words, the peculiarities of an individual's somatic condition were no more relevant to understanding a fever or a toothache than they were for explaining why one's crops were destroyed in a storm. The fact that an affliction happened to attack the body was incidental. The vengeful spirits that brought sickness could just as easily have inflicted drought and famine. This accounts in part for why a collection of cures such as the Wushier bing fang (Recipes for fifty-two ailments) of the late third century B.C. tells us so much, on the one hand, about noxious...

Organization of Services

In rural areas, pediatric services are provided by medical officers, traditional healers, and medical trainees in the primary health centers, as well as by outreach programs run by either governmental or nongovernmental organizations. Psychosomatic presentations in rural settings can take the form of illness related to religious customs (such as being possessed by demons or a god) and are most often treated with traditional forms of therapy, as earlier mentioned, based on beliefs in the community. Patients in urban and metropolitan areas have greater access to psychiatric services, in particular in the outpatient setting. Significant growth has occurred in office-based practices in the past decade. Rates of psychiatric hospitalization and medication use in children and adolescents are low compared with those in Western countries.

Introduction In the beginning

Modern medicine divides problems with the brain into two groups neurology and psychiatry, corresponding to problems with the nervous system and problems with the mind. These disciplines attempt to explain disturbances in experience, behaviour, sensation, movement or speech and relate them to physical, chemical or electrical disturbances in the relevant area of the nervous system. Our ancestors did not make such associations, for example believing that seizures were caused by demonic possession, or that hearing voices might be a sign that God was speaking. Many people also believed, and still believe, in another ability of the brain psychic or paranormal power. These ways of thinking about the brain are important part of the natural tendency we have to categorize and try to make sense of the world around us. Even modern physics recognizes that simple observation by a conscious being affects the behaviour of the subatomic world indeed this is a corner-stone of quantum theory. This...

And Early Christian Worlds

The Hellenistic world spread Greek culture, modified by local custom, throughout the known world. It provided a bridge to the Roman world and to the Christian era beyond. The philosophy, the science, and the medical ethics of those times are composed of the many strands of early Western culture and, in addition, show a strong influence from the Hebrews, the Persians, and other, more Eastern nations. Hebrew medicine (and especially Hebrew hygiene) probably exerted a considerable influence. The Hebrew precept that preserving or saving life trumped all other rules (even that of one who had been an enemy) took precedence over all other religious rules probably exerted some influence on the surrounding world. Undoubtedly Pythagorean views substantially influenced Platonic ideas and ideals and to a greater or lesser extent influenced the ethics central to the writing of the Hippocratic corpus. These ideals were quite different from those of the Stoa (starting with Zeno, ca. 300 BCE) and of...

Understanding patients explanations

Patients use a variety of explanations for their symptoms, and these are elicited. Romme and Escher (1989) found that people who experienced auditory hallucinations described them as being caused by trauma repressed , impulses from unconscious speaking , part of mind expansion , a special gift or sensitivity , expanded consciousness , aliens , astrological phenomena and, more rarely, a chemical imbalance or schizophrenia . To this can be added spiritual beliefs ( God or the Devil speaking ) and technological explanations (satellites or radar, etc.).

The contradictions between science and religion

Moreover, some contemporary philosophers have even tried to demonstrate that physicalism is wrong, proposing that there is a fundamental difference between the subjective character of qualitative experiences and the physicality of the brain 6, 7 . It is a pervasive illusion to believe that qualitative experiences and the mind are nonphysical phenomena. The overview provided in this book will show that qualitative experiences are ineffable, not because they are mysterious or supernatural, but because they consist in language-independent neural processes that could be named, but not re-created in the brains of others through explanations (Chap. 4). Actually, languages can only be developed and translated by anchoring words or gestures into qualitative experiences, or by making the appropriate sounds and gestures that are understandable because humans and higher animals have similar phylogenetic backgrounds and common experiences 8 (Chap. 6). Belief in the existence of a...

Creativity and dissipative systems the edge of chaos

Ruth Richards, Frederick Abraham, and others are exploring the importance of operating at the edge of chaos to creativity and evolutionary adaption. Conditions that foster brainstorming may represent cognitive sets or work settings somewhere between stasis (or periodic behavior) and chaos. Csikszentmihalyi's 'flow' lies between boredom and anxiety. The edge of chaos, observed in dissipative systems, also sheds light on transitional or 'liminal' phenomena, psychological or cultural frontiers important to play, phantasy, and psycho-therapeutic change. Zausner views artistic products as manifesting order, while the creative process is dissipative, with the uniqueness of a work coalescing from dissipative structures. She also comments on potential disorder, with a fine line between 'breakthrough and breakdown' creativity and psy-chopathology may sometimes be very close together. Similarly, Aldous Huxley once wrote how the mescaline experience was poised between 'heaven' and 'hell' (two...

Forensic Psychiatry and Moral Decision Making

In the Yates case, the legal test for insanity in Texas was as follows at the time of the conduct charged, the actor, as a result of severe mental disease or defect, did not know that his conduct was wrong (Texas Penal Code, Section 8.01). In the Yates trial, both defense and prosecution experts agreed on three issues. They agreed that 1) Mrs. Yates suffered from a mental disease, 2) Mrs. Yates knew that her conduct was against the law, and 3) there was a subjective moral wrongfulness issue to be considered (Resnick 2007). This final point referred to the evidence that Mrs. Yates suffered from a delusional belief that her children were not being raised righteously, that she would burn in hell, and that she had to choose the lesser of two evils by drowning them in order to save their souls. This was precisely where the legal battle lines were drawn at the intersection of severe mental illness and Mrs. Yates's appreciation of the subjective moral...

The cerebral cortex using your grey matter

An idle brain is the devil's workshop. Cortex comes from the Latin for rind , which demonstrates the rather dismissive view of this part of the brain in early teaching. Early ideas about brain function were somewhat wide of the mark and for centuries almost all investigators ignored the

The more often you binge and purge the more your routine will change to accommodate the compulsion

Now that I'm better, I can feel for my parents. I guess they really had no other option but to throw me out I was destroying our family life. I'd vomit each time I ate anything, and I couldn't hide what I was doing from my little sister. She got so scared of me that she refused to sit in the same room with me alone. Her teacher told my mom that my sister's schoolwork was going downhill. I guess I was the cause. My mom and dad fought over me all the time. It was like living in hell. I left and got picked up by a juvenile officer. That's what brought me into therapy. Thank goodness it worked.

Diseases and Disease Ecology of the Modern Period in Southeast Asia

Most prominent among the health problems encountered by ancient Chinese armies in Vietnam were malaria and other fevers associated with the monsoon rain season. Chinese generals timed their expeditions into Vietnam to coincide with the dry season, from November to May. When, in 542, ill-informed imperial officials ordered a reluctant army to move into Vietnam during the rainy season, 60 to 70 percent of the army was soon reported dead from fevers (Taylor 1983). Earlier, the general of a Chinese army encamped in Vietnam during the rainy season of A.D. 42 described the scene as a kind of exotic hell Rain fell, vapors rose, there were pestilential emanations, and the heat was unbearable I even saw a sparrowhawk fall into the water and drown (Taylor 1983).

Imagery and Visualization

Imagery, rooted in centuries-old techniques, is based on the idea that our minds can influence the unseen processes of our bodies, such as the immune system. As do many other forms of alternative healing, imagery relies on the assumption of direct and powerful links between mind and body, some of which are neither proven nor real. John Milton, the great English poet, wrote that the human mind can make a heaven of hell. . . . It is this power that imagery and visualization seek to tap.

Making Biases Disappear A Task for System

The weight of neglected variables can be increased by drawing attention to them, and experimenters have devised many ingenious ways to do so. Schwarz et al. (1991) found that respondents pay more attention to base rate information when they are instructed to think as statisticians rather than clinical psychologists. Krosnick, Li, and Lehman (1 990) exploited conversational conventions about the sequencing of information and confirmed that the impact of base rate information was enhanced by presenting that information after the personality description rather than before it. Attention to the base rate is also enhanced when participants observe the drawing of descriptions from an urn (Gigerenzer, Hell, & Blank, 1988) perhaps because watching the drawing induces conscious expectations that reflect the known proportions of possible outcomes. The conjunction fallacy can also be reduced or eliminated by manipulations that increase the accessibility of the relevant rule, including some...

Selfabsolution And Private Religion

The current innerness of religion can be understood as an aspect of the process of self-absolutization. Modernity has seen the human being become self-centered, prone to self-divinization, and inclined to construct reality in this-world ways. It is a development that has the effect of diminishing the transcendent elements of religion and creating a new sort of cognitive crisis. Robert Bellah writes that as religion becomes increasingly human, we run the risk of becoming psychological captives of a literal and circumscribed reality which is precisely and classically to be trapped in hell, without transcendence, without manner, and without the devastating power of the sacred. 5

Speculations on the Mental State of Creative Individuals Prior to the Romantic

Critical to an understanding of the ancient Greeks' speculations regarding the nature of the creative process are the concepts of demonic possession and melancholia. The 'demon,' which the Greeks conceived as a semideity that presided over a person, a locality, or some other discrete entity, was believed to be endowed with powers to shape the destiny of each in either a positive or negative fashion. Somewhat different from this general view of the term, Socrates regarded the demon as a divine gift granted to a few select individuals only. According to this view, the poet, priest, philosopher, and sage communicated with the gods through the intervention of their demon. It is in this sense that Socrates called upon his demon and attributed most of his knowledge to intimations from it. This conception of demons as the benevolent agents of the gods was generally endorsed by Plato and others and found support in Plato's doctrine of divine madness or 'enthousiasmos.' In this view, the poet,...

Constraints on Metaphorical Creativity

Another aspect of bodily constraints on metaphoric creativity is seen as an examination of synesthetic metaphors. These poetic metaphors are especially vivid because they express cross-sensory mappings that are constrained by a cognitive principle whereby mappings go from lower sensory modes to higher ones (e.g., touch taste smell sound sight). One analysis of synesthetic metaphors showed several instances of these preferred patterns in the work of the Chinese writer Mo Yan. For example, the following expression demonstrates the synthestic transfer from touch (i.e., the source domain) to smell (i.e., the target domain) The house was full of bubbling hot stench, like a dead chicken or duck being scaled by boiling water. This sentence conveys the idea of a horrible smell being something that is 'hot' to the touch. Another metaphor expresses a synesthetic mapping from touch to sound, the music was light and bright, exquisite and emotive, stroking people's faces, like a gentle breeze in...

The variety of objects

Philosophers have always been preoccupied by classifying all that exists, but opinions and classifications differ widely. Following Descartes, many have accepted that there is a fundamental difference between material or physical objects1 (res extensa) and mental objects (res cogitans). Today, more than 90 of Americans believe in supernatural or spiritual objects, which are thought to include souls, God, and a variety of spirits, such as guardian angels and the devil. This implies that, in addition to physical and mental objects, there is an imaginary third realm of spiritual or supernatural objects. Catholics and members of other religions believe that humans have a soul, a supernatural substance that animates the body, will survive death, and will be judged by God to determine whether it will go to heaven or to hell. The idea that consciousness is a substance originates from what philosophers call reification. This consists in treating complex processes, whether natural or...

Accomplishing policy change the boundarywork of medical and nurse managers

There was almost like a splinter group of the medical staff and they were going to be writing the protocols for us which was one of the big pressures for the nursing staff to get their act together and to produce these packages and things because otherwise it would have been imposed on us from the medics. It's been a hell of a struggle getting all the paperwork sorted out but we didn't want someone else setting it up for us. We wanted to do everything ourselves.

Brahms Joachim and the Schumanns

On their last journey together, in Hanover, the Schumanns wanted to visit their two young demons Joachim and Brahms. While Clara had great success playing at the court of George V, Schumann's new works for violin, the Fantasy and the Sonata, were badly criticized and contributed to anger and restless nights. They were back in D sseldorf in February 1854. On February 12, constant hallucinations of glorious and unearthly music threatened to destroy his mind, wrote Clara. In his psychotic delirium Schumann wrote variations on a theme that he believed Schubert had sent him.

Shaw in The 20th Century

Shaw went on to write Plays for Puritans (1901), which included The Devil's Disciple, Caesar and Cleopatra, and Captain Brass-bound's Conversion. Declaring himself a puritan in the broad sense of adhering to the dictates of conscience, he wrote these three plays as studies of conscience. In these plays he continued to see the stage as a means of social criticism on which he could broadcast his belief in the evils of capitalism, romanticism, and traditional morality. Other famous plays include Major Barbara (1905) and Pygmalion (1913), both of which were eventually made into motion pictures. Shaw's Heartbreak House (1917) is a somewhat pessimistic portrayal of disillusionment and ends with the outbreak of World War I. His monumental Back to Methuselah (1921) is a five-play collection that explores human progress from Eden to a science fiction future. In Saint Joan (1923), Shaw created a heretical Saint Joan of Arc whose brilliant monologues make the play one of his most popular. He was...

Historical Foundations

Until relatively recently, creativity was not scientifically studied. Explanations of creative outcomes, if given at all, frequently referred to supernatural influences such as muses, divine intervention and demonic powers, or to vaguely identified personal characteristics such as 'giftedness' and 'madness.' Many believed these external or internal forces in turn produced an 'a-ha' experience in individuals that in turn propelled them to act on their ideas.

The attribution of biological evolution to god is a sophisticated form of schizodoxia

In any terrestrial court of law, God would be found negligent on many counts that would not only include the invention of cancer and obnoxious bacterial and degenerative diseases, but also the creation of the Devil, if there were any real evidence for the latter. Religious lawyers might argue that diseases and obstacles, like the many plagues of Job, were necessary to test the strength of man's religious convictions. As a matter of fact, a god should not need to test the perfection of his own creation. Despite all religious beliefs, however, there is no scientific evidence of the existence of God, guardian angels, or wicked devils and witches. The introduction of good and bad supernatural forces in daily life would negate causality, true knowledge, and science. In consequence, the whole universe would already be chaotic and unpredictable by logic and reason.

Models of Human Development

Evaluation compared CASE students with control students on school science achievement tests with delayed posttesting. For some groups, substantial and statistically significant differences emerged for science, mathematics, and English performance two years after participation in CASE, demonstrating magnitude, persistence, and transfer of impact, the criteria used in the foregoing results section (Adey & Shayer, 1994, p. 92). It is not the role of this chapter to review the complexities of contemporary developmental psychology, especially because as far as we know, few approaches to the teaching of thinking have based themselves on recent developmental theory. Quite likely, there are substantial opportunities that have not been taken. To give a sense of the promise, Case (1992) advanced the idea of central conceptual structures, which are core structures in broad domains such as quantity, narrative, and intentionality that lie at the foundations of development in these domains and...

Specific Cross Cultural Perspectives

Physical Ill Health Cross Culture

In Africa, illness has traditionally been attributed to several causes, primarily to demons and evil spirits. Beliefs regarding the role of spirits in causing disease may persist. Two important values in the Latino culture are respeto and dignidad. Respeto is demonstrated to a Hispanic Latino patient when the health-care provider dresses in the traditional garb of the profession expected by the Latino patient and communicates an interest in his or her life and health. Hispanic Latino people also enjoy a brief social conversation before a discussion of their illness. This helps to develop a sense of confianza, or trust. Titles are important in communicating with the Japanese patient, as with other groups. The family name is usually written first. Bowing is very common and indicates respect it is used when greeting and leaving. Avoiding eye contact, particularly with older Japanese patients, demonstrates respect. Another aspect of dealing with Japanese or Korean patients relates to the...

The Autoerotic Factor In Religion

Concentrated fervor of thought rarely known to the Greek and Roman writers of the best period. 387 As Christian theology developed, the minute inquisition into sexual things sometimes became almost an obsession. So far as I am aware, however (I cannot profess to have made any special investigation), it was not until the late Middle Ages that there is any clear recognition of the fact that, between the religious emotions and the sexual emotions, there is not only a superficial antagonism, but an underlying relationship. At this time so great a theologian and philosopher as Aquinas said that it is especially on the days when a man is seeking to make himself pleasing to God that the Devil troubles him by polluting him with seminal emissions. With somewhat more psychological insight, the wise old Knight of the Tower, Landry, in the fourteenth century, tells his daughters that no young woman, in love, can ever serve her God with that unfeignedness which she did aforetime. For I have heard...

Personal responsibility and control

Are passive and wait for life or other people, including health professionals, to take control for them. At the other extreme are those who believe they can and indeed must exercise control over every aspect of their lives. They are hell-bent on establishing control. Not only do they have confidence that they can establish control, but they try at every opportunity to do so, and become various sorts of control freaks. We might describe these extremes as being either externally or internally controlled.

Schizophrenia and Schizophrenic Thinking

Consider the following proverb When the cat's away, the mice will play. The proverb was first coined in the fourteenth century (in French, ou chat na rat regne), and one version appears in Shakespeare's Henry V (Playing the mouse in absence of the cat). What does the proverb mean One can try to provide a singular interpretation, thus exemplifying convergent thinking (e.g., When no one in authority is present, the subordinates can do as they please). One could also try to provide as many different interpretations as possible, thus exemplifying divergent thinking (e.g., one relating to extramarital affairs, another relating to illegal financial transactions, etc.). While proverbs can thus be used to study creativity they have primarily been used to understand schizophrenic thinking. Consider the following responses made by schizophrenics, appearing in a chapter from more than 60 years ago, wherein the author advocates the use of proverbs for studying schizophrenic thinking (1) When...

The tragic consequences of blind faith

Another incident in which a sect was involved, in 1993, destroyed the Mount Carmel Center, in Waco, Texas. There was an armed conflict between a religious sect, the Branch Davidians headed by David Koresh, and the Federal law enforcement agents, following a 7 week siege. The sect, which had a long history of apocalyptic predictions, separated from the Davidians Sect of the Seventh Day Adventists, who believe that Jesus' Second Coming and the end of the world are near. The first prediction, by William Miller (1782-1849), was that Christ was returning on October 23, 1844. When Jesus did not show up, this led to much disappointment 15 . Since then, the second coming has been supported by visions and delusional interpretations of the scriptures by Ellen G. White. She had about 300 visions in her lifetime, and seems to have been frankly paranoid she thought that Satan, who was represented by the Bishop of Rome, would seek to control the world. She believed that only those whom God...

Diseases of the Premodern Period in Japan

About the time that the Japanese government borrowed the Chinese custom of recording outbreaks of pestilence, it also borrowed their medical theory. The description, diagnosis, and treatment of disease in premodern Japan almost always derive from Chinese texts. Buddhist scriptures from India also influenced how disease and medicine were perceived in early Japan. It is unclear how much the Japanese knew about disease and its treatment before Chinese and Indian influences. Some medical practices reported during early epidemics may well derive from native roots, as during the Great Smallpox Epidemic of 735-7 (Farris 1985). For the most part, however, the native Japanese view of disease was that it was demonic possession to be exorcised by shamans and witch doctors. (mappo), dominated Japanese thought. According to this doctrine, three ages of 500 years each followed the death of the Buddha the first era, when salvation was simple the second, when it was more difficult and the latter day,...

Spirituality Religion as a Healing Pathway for Survivors of Sexual Violence

Et al. explored positive and negative religious strategies among individuals coping with the Oklahoma City bombing, college students dealing with major life stressors, and patients coping with medical illnesses.34 He found that positive religious coping consisted of religious forgiveness, seeking spiritual support, collaborating with God to solve problems, spiritual connection, searching for purification through religious activities, and religiously viewing the stressor as potentially benevolent. Negative spiritual coping strategies included spiritual discontent, viewing the stressor as a punishment from God because of their sins, dissatisfaction with religious leaders and members, appraising the stressor as the devil's doing, and reappraisal of God's powers. Gall examined the role of spiritual coping in addressing current life stressors for adult survivors of child sexual abuse, and in doing so he distinguished between negative and positive spiritual coping strategies.35 Negative...

Concepts of Addiction The US Experience

Concern in the United States over opiate addiction and the rise in consumption, which reached a peak in the 1890s, led to state laws that in most instances made morphine available only by a physician's prescription, although there was no restriction on interstate commerce. Cocaine use increasingly worried the public, who associated it with the underworld and assumed that its use by blacks was a cause of unrest among them in the South. The latter association exemplifies the linkages so easily made by the public between drugs and social problems.

Temporal lobe epilepsy emotions from nowhere

Temporal lobe seizures can cause religious and mystical experiences. If the electrical disturbance particularly affects the amygdala, the person may experience bizarre imagery of a sexual, dream-like and religious nature, including demons, gods and ghosts. If the rest of the limbic system is particularly affected, the experience is more generally religious and mystical. The writer Dostoyevsky had temporal lobe seizures, often having visions of angels sounding trumpets and the gates of heaven opening. Here is an example of his own description

Morphology and Anatomic Distribution

Astrocyte Morphology

Contain stellate and spindle-shaped cells was named as neuroglia or nerve glue by Virchow in 1860 (2). About 100 years ago, use of the gold sublimate staining method showed well-developed processes to emerge from many sides of astrocytes giving them their stellate shape and allowing the distinction of astrocytes from other glia (3). Cajal also noted that the tips of astrocytic processes having bulbous dilatations or end-feet terminated on vessel walls and that astrocytes could form a physical bridge between neurons and vessels. The Weigert technique (4) demonstrated the cytoplasmic fibrils in astrocytes and allowed the distinction between fibrillary astrocytes in the white matter, which have abundant fibrils, and protoplasmic astrocytes in the cerebral cortex which have fewer fibrils. Astrocytic processes also combine at the surface of the brain to form the glia limitans (Fig. 1a). The Bergmann astrocytes of the cerebellum have processes predominantly oriented in one direction and...

Psychological intervention

As her psychiatrist, I saw her regularly over a period of two to three years as an outpatient and in ward rounds for relatively brief sessions (rarely more than 30 minutes). Over a period of six months, she discussed her understanding of the voices and their development. She talked about how she had become pregnant and had had the pregnancy terminated. Her father had been appalled at this and had made accusations against her, similar in nature to the content of the voices. She herself felt guilty and was unable to discuss the conception of the child, which had resulted from a somewhat coercive relationship with a boyfriend. She would hear the voice of her terminated offspring Christopher and the devil, and also see visions of it saying it looked like its father. She seriously contemplated harming her husband and son. Voices commanded her to drown herself and she attempted suicide by using a plastic bag on the ward, but fortunately was rescued by nursing staff. Unfortunately, although...

Initial contact and voices group

In Helena's case, we established in the course of the group that high arousal and a powerful experience of the voices did indeed go together, and that simple relaxation breathing, and other calming occupations, were helpful coping strategies. When we came to the point in the group of starting to uncover the idiosyncratic meanings of people's voices, we had something of a breakthrough in her case. She reported that the voice, which she said was the devil, screamed at her to kill herself. She could not identify the voice, but when I asked whether she could recall hearing anyone scream like that, she said yes she had screamed like that when she was raped, at the age of 8. This enabled us to suggest that instead of being the voice of the devil, this was really the part of her that had never managed to cope with that terrifying and punishing event in the distant past.

Premedical Health Care

Political changes during the first millennium B.C., when the Chou dynasty fell into a period of turmoil with several centuries of civil war, may have been responsible for the rise of a new worldview. Even though a belief in the effect of ancestral curses or blessings on the health of the living has survived in Chinese culture well into the twentieth century, especially among some rural strata of the population, Chou sources indicate a change in emphasis. The physical health and illness of the individual (and, in the case of epidemics, of society) were thought of at this time predominantly as an outcome of successful protection against the possibility or manifestation of an onslaught of not only visible but also invisible enemies (i.e., demons). In contrast to ancestors, demons, who were not related to specific living persons as deceased relatives, were not believed to desist from harming humans even if they adhered to certain moral principles. Moreover, demons could not be propitiated...

History of the Study of Genetic Disease From the Greeks to Garrod

The decline of reason that marked the Middle Ages was reflected in interpretations of the birth of malformed infants. T. W. Glenister (1964) notes that such children were called Devil's brats and were generally believed to have been conceived in a union with Satan. As was the case with any perceived deviation from piety, the fate of both infant and mother was quickly and ruthlessly determined. Late in the Middle Ages, however, the rise of astrology sometimes made for surprising outcomes. For example, when in the beginning of the thirteenth century For Harvey and others, rare pathology was not a source of revulsion or the workings of Satan but, rather, a subject demanding study and understanding. In 1882, Sir James Paget made a similar appeal on behalf of the study of rare disorders We ought The story of the discovery of the basic hereditary laws of segregation and independent assortment by the Austrian monk Mendel and of their subsequent independent rediscovery by Carl Correns, Hugo...

Classification Clinical Manifestations and Pathology

The growing emphasis on physiological mechanisms and electroclinical correlations has led to a classification of the epilepsies by the localization of the electrical abnormality in the brain. The major division is between generalized (centrencephalic) seizures, where the brain activity is spread over the entire cerebral cortex and partial (focal) seizures, which occur when only one part of the brain is involved. Generalized seizures demonstrate bilateral motor activity and involve a loss of consciousness, which may or may not occur in partial seizures depending upon the part of the brain initially affected and the subsequent involvement of other structures. There is an approximate correspondence between the sites of the brain where electrical abnormality occurs and the clinical manifestation of the seizure. Underlying the great variety of explanations offered by the ancients lies the basic belief that epilepsy is an affliction or possession by a higher power and that its cure must be...

Diseases of the Islamic World

The population lived in the countryside at a subsistence level and often at the mercy of nomadic depredations. The medical works have the serious disadvantage of being largely nonclinical and highly derivative of classical medical texts, and the anecdotes of renowned physicians are frequently apocryphal. Yet major features of a pathological tableau do emerge, in which illness is inextricably tied to poverty as both cause and effect. Blindness is conspicuous, particularly in Egypt the result of a number of diseases, blindness seems to have afflicted a large percentage of the population, and the blind were traditionally employed as Koran reciters in mosques. Deafness was often congenital, and mutism was associated with nervous disorders. Paralysis, epilepsy, and mental disorders are frequently described in the medical and nonmedical texts, which include surviving magical incantations and prayers directed against demonic possession.

Western religions

Muhammad (570-622 A.D.) was the most important prophet of Islam and codified the strict rules that Muslims are required to follow today. Like Christians, Muslims believe that, after death, they will enter either paradise or hell. They must do a pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime to worship at a shrine in Mecca. Despite the similarity of their expectations after death, there are important differences in the beliefs imposed by these religions.

Paris and Rodin

By the next year, both Camille and her friend, Jessie, were employed in Rodin's studio where he was feverishly working on the Gates of Hell and The Burghers of Calais. As with most such studios of the time, students were required to work on the parts of the sculpture assigned to them while the entire project was overseen by and credited to the head artist. During this period, Camille became very involved in the creations, both posing for figures and doing more and more of the sculpting. Rodin much preferred modeling with clay to working with stone, and Camille showed great proficiency in the latter. So, she quickly moved from the role of student to one of an assistant. During this time, Rodin even finished and signed his own name to some of Camille's sculptures. Although the Claudel family, and later Camille, accused Rodin of exploiting Camille in this way, it was typical of the apprenticeship practice in the nineteenth century for the master to teach the assistants in exchange for...


Diseases were discussed in terms of their major symptoms. However, often no clear distinctions were made, and death from famine was recorded with the same wording as death from an epidemic. No need for precision may have been felt in a society that attributed misfortune, disease, and death to the action of ghosts, devils, and demons. Although the more rational principles of Chinese medicine were known to the physicians, they rarely made distinctions solely based on these criteria.

Early Observations

Research into creativity did not really begin until the nineteenth century. However, earlier reactions to change can tell us a little about early views of creativity and the on-going tension between change and the status quo. Humans have always been as likely to resist innovation, invention, and change as to embrace it. Mohammed's statement that every innovation is an error and every error leads to hell fire stands in dramatic contrast to the fact that the Middle East was a center of learning, famous for hundreds of years for its libraries and universities. Sometimes the stories of early resistance seem almost unbelievable - an English citizen was tried, condemned, and executed in 1306 for burning coal rather than wood. The textile industry was the first battleground of machine technology against hand tools (Stern, 1937, p. 55). The conflict started in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and continued until the Luddite riots into the nineteenth century. From the time of Philip the...

Genetic Manipulation

There has been great hesitancy to allow the development of procedures that could allow genetic manipulation. Many have felt that when man enters the area in which he creates himself, he fulfills the biblical prediction of the devil. Creating oneself has an interesting history in original Hebraic law the prohibition against the making of graven images of living things, for example, appears to denote that man should not assume the position of creating life. Others have felt that even the first step (understanding our genome, for example) inevitably will lead down a road that must end up with the attempt to improve the race in the service of some theoretical image of what the perfect human being should be.


Nina, a 13-year-old middle-school student, became involved in Satanism and developed an obsessive interest in death. She told several friends that she intended to kill herself. Nina's friends reported her suicidal intentions to their school counselor (at a different school), who conveyed the information to Nina's school counselor Both counselors met with Nina and questioned her about her statements concerning suicide, but she denied making them. Neither counselor informed Nina's parents or other members of the school staff about her suicidal statements. One week after telling her friends about her suicidal intentions, Nina and another 13-year-old girl consummated a murder-suicide pact in a public park some distance from the middle school she attended (adapted from Eisel v. Board of Education, 1991).


To utilize your own inner strength in dealing with prostate cancer, men must wrestle with four ''i's'' the myth of immortality, accepting immodesty, the fear of incontinence, and the fear of impotence. Those who successfully confront these demons will find the going much easier. Those who fail to do so will be plagued by a fifth ''i'' indecision. They will also be prone to denial and depression. The latter can become a major problem a study in Florida reported that suicide among men with prostate cancer was four times more common than among all men in their same age group.1 Another approach is through intellectual acceptance. In the words of Francis Bacon, ''It is as natural to die as to be born.'' In this regard, it is helpful to have had an acquaintance with death. For individuals whose sole experience with death has been that of a beloved pet or an elderly grandparent, the initial confrontation with their own potential demise is likely to be deeply troubling. Some of us, by...

The Harmonic Series

An example is 45 32, which is known as a tritone, and is sometimes known as 'the devil in music' because of its perceived dissonance, and connotations of evil (to be avoided like the devil). Which harmonies are accepted as pleasing (concordant) or unpleasant (discordant) is, however, subject to changing opinion.

Saint Anthonys Fire

This disease is associated with ergotism, which results from ingesting the ergot fungus that grows on rye. Most authorities assume that the name Saint Anthony's fire refers to Saint Anthony the Great, third-century hermit and founder of Christian ascetic monasticism, who renounced the world for the deserts of Egypt. However, Saint Anthony of Padua, born in the late twelfth century, may also be connected with the name of the disease. He was a noted preacher, popular for exorcising demons and restoring the insane to health.

Crystal Healing

Many ancient cultures, including the Greeks, Egyptians, Babylonians and Asians, believed that crystals have powers or that they serve as homes for spirits. Crystals were thought to house angels, demons or fairies. At one point in the Old Testament, God is said to dwell in a stone. In Sanskrit terminology, spirits inside crystals were known as devas, or gods. In ancient times, people believed that crystals gave off light. The ancient Hindus thought that the underworld was illuminated by huge gems, acting as minor suns. The Greeks had similar beliefs. According to medieval legend, the very top of the Church of the Holy Grail held a huge light-emitting ruby, serving as a beacon to guide the Grail knights.

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The para tenia shod axis still frame in diastole demons , tes a patient with iii ijii)'ic septal flattening. I'liis s found in a patient with right sided whwie 12. b. The TKK images demonstr.iti a patient with HOC.M. Ihere is septal hyper-tr phy and the systolic frame demonstrates SAW, winch is systolic anterior motion of the initial leaflets 'lag. 13-31). The cvlo Doppler images for this patient ucmijnslrale severe mitral regurgitation thai posterior. . reeled, wl cl classic for MR caused b SAM of the mil il livTels SAM i.m involve .it hi t .e . terioi or postci ioi leaflet alone, or a pa' enl ma have b ilea lie SAM. IVo citlly. I the mill al leafli I h*x not bei n too darnag il iv eai s oi .out,let w ith the ,sep .n. performing a septal nr.celt m can lis the severe MR m eliminating llie V( f obstruction and eliminating the SAM. This type ol M R is otten iemo-ihnamicallv labile depending on the loading conditions ol the i V. Hii SAN can be hrougli out or acn nluated b giving...

The Unexpected Baby

Me with tears in his eyes, he says, Well, you have a Down's syndrome child. And I didn't know what he meant. I says, Is it a cold, does it go away, what the hell is it And he says, Patsy, the baby is mongoloid. I mean, it hits home, it's like, Are you for real And then he looks me square in the eye and he says, We have some papers. You could award him to the state if you don't want him. And I looked at my doctor that just delivered my son, my doctor that I loved, we had such a friendship, and I says, Get the hell out of this room. (Patsy DelVecchio, white bus driver, mother of a 6-year-old with Down syndrome)

Origins of Acting

Hindu theatre depended most upon the actor who in turn relied on four basic resources (1) codified movement and gesture, (2) speech and song, (3) costume and makeup, and (4) psychological insight. Gestures were classified linking body parts to inner feelings while speech and music was regulated by intonation, pitch, and tempo. Costumes, props, and makeup were used as symbols and the overarching goal was to illustrate the Hindu search for peace of soul, rest after struggle, happiness after trials, and submission to fate. During the twelfth century Sanskrit theatre ended however, dance survived and was integrated, in the seventeenth century, into the dancedrama, Kathakali. Like earlier Sanskrit drama, it was based on Hindu epics, with exaggerated style, musical support, and symbolic representations of good and evil, love and hate, and the passions of the gods and demons. Performances frequently lasted all night. Similar dance-dramas were performed in Southeast Asia and shadow plays...

Forensic Imperatives

As always, the devil lurks in the detail. The detail in this case is, of course, the role of psychological factors in face recognition. objective criteria the resulting composite compared poorly with the subject whom it purported to describe. Nevertheless, when the composite was shown to other students and staff in the large department where the professor had worked in the recent past, many people still recognized the target individual. Perhaps more importantly, everyone agreed that the composite image could not possibly be anyone else in the building if it were not the target individual. This simple example illustrates several important points recall of facial characteristics is far from perfect even when exposure to the target individual is conducted under comfortable and nonthreatening conditions over an extended period of time, albeit removed from the immediate past. It also demonstrates that facial reconstructions do not have to be perfect to provoke recollections. Further, as...

St Anthonys Fire

This disease is generally associated with ergotism, a disease resulting from the ingestion of the ergot fungus that grows on rye. Most authorities assume that the name St. Anthony's fire refers to St. Anthony the Great, a third-century A.D. hermit and founder of Christian ascetic monasticism. This saint renounced the world for the deserts of Egypt and, according to hagiographers, there combatted the devil numerous times. His visions of the devil took the form of worldly pleasures, seductive women, dragons, banquet tables, and the like. However, St. Anthony of Padua, born in the late twelfth century, may also be connected to the name of the disease. This saint was a noted preacher, popular for his ability to exorcise demons. He was also known for restoring the insane to health, and was credited with miraculously healing an individual whose limb had been amputated.

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