Scabies Holistic Treatments
Scabies probably existed in Korea and China from ancient times. Since the fifteenth century, Korean doctors treated scabies with remedies that included sulfur poultices and arsenic sulfide. Avison reported that scabies was very common among his patients, as were scalp eruptions from head lice, and various forms of suppurating sores on other parts of the body (Avison 1897). The itch-mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, which causes scabies, is only one of the varieties of mites found in Korea. During the 1940s, scabies, trichophytous infections, and impetigo were quite common.
Figure 8-85 Scabies. A month or longer may pass before the symptom of generalized pruritus develops. The diagnostic physical sign is the burrow, which is a serpiginous, palpable track about 1 cm in length that may end in a papule, nodule, or tiny vesicle. The adult female mite is present in the burrow. The extremely pruritic rash of scabies has a predilection for the web spaces of the fingers and toes, as well as the groin. The buttocks are also frequently involved, as are the genitals of men and the nipples of women. A generalized papular or urticarial eruption may ensue after localized scabies infection. The presence of papules on the genitalia in a patient with intense pruritus should raise the strong suspicion of scabies. Outbreaks of scabies are common in population groups in which HIV infection is prevalent. Figure 8-85 shows the hand of a patient with scabies. Notice the classic eruption between the fingers. Figure 18-16 shows another patient with scabies...
Certain conditions, including HIV and various skin conditions (i.e., herpes simplex, impetigo, scabies, and molluscum contagiosum), may cause concern for other athletes. Athletes with these skin conditions should avoid sports involving mats and cover all skin lesions. Athletic personnel should always use universal precautions when handling blood or body fluids with visible blood.
More often than not there are skin changes, including ulcerating areas, open and healed sores, scabies, and a condition known as flaky-paint dermatosis, in which removal of the flakes reveals lighter patches of skin. When kwashiorkor persists, the hair begins to be affected it loses its luster, and dark hair becomes lighter. Curly hair straightens, and eventually the hair becomes brittle and falls out, leaving bare areas of scalp clearly visible.
As in all premodern societies, skin diseases, particularly inflammatory afflictions, were known among the Japanese. The Ishinpo includes chapters on afflictions that can be identified as scabies, pustular and other forms of suppurative dermatitis, carbuncles, scrofula, felon, and erysipelas. Some sources indicate that gonorrhea and soft chancre occurred in ancient Japan, under the names rin-shitsu, bendoku, and genkan. However, these terms appear in medical books only from the fifteenth century onward. Similarly, syphilis is encountered for the first time during this period. Japanese pirates apparently brought the bacterium into the islands from European ports in China.
The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis, is becoming increasingly resistant to existing acaricidal compounds such as lindane, benzyl benzoate, permethrin, and oral ivermectin. The potential use of a 5 Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil solution to treat scabies infections was investigated in vitro. It was found to be highly effective at reducing mite survival times and the main active component was terpinen-4-ol. However, the in vivo effectiveness was only tested on one individual, in combination with benzyl benzoate and ivermectin (Walton et al., 2004). A double-blind, randomized, parallel group study was used to compare the effects of 25 w w benzyl benzoate emulsion with 20 w w Lippia multiflora essential oil emulsion in the treatment of scabies infection in 105 patients. Applied daily, the cure rates for the oil emulsion were 50 , 80 , and 80 for 3, 5, and 7 days, respectively, compared to 30 , 60 , and 70 for the benzyl benzoate emulsion. There were also less adverse...
In contrast, Medieval Europe was poorly prepared to confront trachoma when it appeared in epidemic forms, often accompanying returning Crusader armies from North Africa or the Middle East (Cornand 1979). Because Arab authors used the term jarab (scabies), medieval Latin translators from the Arabic called trachoma scabies. As late as 1561, Pierre Franco would term the disease scabie et prurit en oeil (Hirschberg 1985). That trachoma existed in Jerusalem is attested by the writings of Benvenutus of Jerusalem (thirteenth century), whose description of his surgical treatment of trachoma survives (Chance 1939 Hirschberg 1985). Because of the frequent movement of Italian merchants and crusading armies between Italy and the Middle East, it is not surprising that Italy and especially Salerno became a center of knowledge about eye diseases (Chance 1939). Arabic and Greek writers were translated into Latin and influenced Italian concepts of trachoma and its treatment. At the end of the...
In addition to the plentiful information on diseases supplied by court histories, literature, and other records, medical texts and an encyclopedia called the Wamyo ruiju sho also list medical terminology (Hattori 1945). Among the infections included are idiopathic cholera (shiri yori kuchi yori koku yamai, kakuran), leprosy (raibyd), elephantiasis igeju), bronchitis (shiwabuki yami), hepatitis (kibamu yamai), dropsy (harafukuru yamai), asca-rids (kaichu), threadworms (gyochu), meningitis (fubyo), infantile dysentery (shoji kakuran), diphtheria (bahi), bronchial asthma (zensoku), epilepsy (tenkari), chronic nephritis (shokatsu), tonsilitis (kdhi), osteomyelitis (fukotsuso), thyroiditis (ei), erysipelas (tandokuso), ringworm (senso), gastritis (iso), palsy (kuchi yugamu), and scabies (kaiso). Records from the era 700-1050 also have led scholars to infer the existence of cancer, pneumonia, tapeworms, rheumatoid arthritis, and hookworms.
Topical permethrin or lindane is commonly used to treat scabies. Each of these products should be applied thoroughly and then, after 8 to 12 hours, washed from the skin. Lindane should be avoided during infancy and pregnancy because of reports of infant neurotoxicity following systemic absorption through the skin. Scabies. Burrows on the forehead of a young patient with scabies. (Photo contributor David Effron, MD.) Scabies. Burrows and erosions from itching on the foot of a patient with scabies. (Photo contributor David Effron, MD.) Norwegian Scabies. Gray scales and crusting consistent with Norwegian scabies. In these patients, many thousands (versus a few dozen) mites are present. (Photo contributor Lynn Utecht, MD.)
Coming in winter although from early times this meant scabies, it must be translated here as an itching, scabieslike epidemic. Under any winter conditions, exanthematic typhus is perhaps to be suspected, but the descriptions of chieh also sometimes include convulsions, with arched back, and speechless lockjaw, so that the word sometimes may have been used for tetanus. We shall suggest immediately below a more satisfactory meaning for it. Each of the four seasons has its characteristic epidemics (.li1 chi). In spring there comes feverish aches and headaches (hsiao shou chi) in summer there are itching scabies-like epidemics (yang chieh chi) in autumn there are malarial and other fevers (nio han chi) in winter there are respiratory diseases (sou shang chhi chi). How is one to interpret these technical terms No doubt the feverish aches and headaches of the spring refer to influenza, catarrhs, and so forth, but the itching, scabieslike epidemics of the summer were certainly far more...
Have an impact in terms of physical disability or even mortality, are rare or very rare. They include, among others, autoimmune bullous diseases, such as pemphigus, severe pustular and erythrodermic psoriasis, generalised eczematous reactions, and such malignant tumours as malignant melanoma and lymphoma. The disease frequency may show variations according to age, sex and geographic area. Eczema is common at any age while acne is decidedly more frequent among male adolescents. Skin tumours are particularly frequent in aged white populations. Infestations and infections such as scabies, pyoderma and dermato-phytosis predominate in developing countries and some urban pockets of developed countries. In many cases, skin diseases are minor health problems, which may be trivialised in comparison with other more serious medical conditions. However, as mentioned above, skin manifestations are visible and may cause more distress to the public than more serious medical problems. The issue is...
The ancient medical texts also describe erysipelas, carbuncles, dermatitis, furunculosis, inflammations, abscesses, tumors, pustules, lymphagitis, and gangrene, as well as scabies, which probably existed in Korea and China from ancient times. Texts from the Yi Dynasty described this condition and useful methods of cure, including sulfur poultices. The Tongui pogam says that there are five kinds of scabies dry, damp, sand, insect, and pus.
Other nonlethal ailments that tormented sub-Saharan Africans include still more eye ailments, which must have been caused by an absence of vitamin A, since night blindness was regularly seen. The skin complaints that seemed to plague almost everyone resulted from riboflavin deficiency as well as from pellagra, yaws, syphilis, onchocerciasis, and a variety of insect pests including the mites that produce scabies, which were widely reported. Ainhum, sometimes called the dry gangrene of the little toe by European observers, which involved the constriction and eventual loss of that digit, was another ailment reported with some frequency and rheumatism and arthritis were rife across the continent. Finally, women and children often ate dirt and clay, presumably in response to mineral deficiencies.
The most severe problem is that of sarcoptic mange, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. (see also Ch. 29). The mite burrows into the skin and multiplies rapidly, resulting in loss of most of the fur, which takes about 4 months. The fox loses weight and many die. The lesions ooze fluid, which dries to form a crust that is full of mites. Mange is intensely irritant and the fox will scratch and gnaw at itself, often chewing a limb or its tail off. As the fox moves around and curls up with other foxes, bits of crust fall off and other foxes become infected. Caught early enough, the condition can be treated untreated the fox will die. Sarcoptic mange is a zoonosis, so care must be taken when dealing with infected patients.
Scabies diagnosis can be challenging. Again, patients present with itching that can be anywhere on the body, although often in the genital area or on the buttocks when infection is sexual in origin. The pruritus associated with Sarcoptes scabiei is a result of sensitization to the mite droppings underneath the skin as the mite burrows. The classic burrow or linear papular eruption is not always present. Scraping of lesions with microscopic examination may be performed to identify the mite. As with pediculosis, close contacts should be treated. Linens and clothing should be laundered or dry-cleaned or isolated in plastic containers for 72 hours. The pruritus-associated with scabies can take several weeks to resolve after treatment. Patients living in group settings (dormitories or apartments) may reinfect one another as a result of inadequate primary treatment of all contacts (Table 16-14). Scabies
Describe the steps to take to eradicate lice infestation and scabies. key concepts The diagnosis of scabies is made by obtaining skin scrapings and detecting the mite in a wet mount. Topical therapy is 5 permethrin. Space constraints do not allow detailed discussions of the world of parasites, and clinicians and students are directed to some excellent resources for further details on parasites and parasitic diseases.9,11 Discussion in this chapter will include those parasitic diseases that are more likely to be seen in the United States and will include GI parasites (primarily giardiasis and amebiasis), protozoan infections (malaria and South American trypanosomiasis), some common helminthic diseases (specifically those caused by nematodes and cestodes), and ectoparasites (lice and scabies).
Chitis, tuberculosis, whooping cough, diphtheria, ulcerative tonsillitis, skin diseases, scabies, diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal worms, leprosy, syphilis, smallpox, malaria, typhus, and fevers of various sorts. Although he usually wrote with immense confidence in his own opinions, Avison admitted that as we do not have the privilege of making autopsies to correct our diagnoses in case of death, many of our suppositions . . . may not be correct (Avison 1897).
A disturbed Vayu driving Pitta and Kapha dosas into the skin was thought to bring on some skin diseases, whereas other skin diseases were viewed as the work of parasites. As a group, skin ailments were generally termed Kustha. The 7 Maha (or major) Kusthas appear to be variants of leprosy, a disease existing in India from ancient times. The 11 minor Kusthas were other skin diseases that are more difficult to equate with current cutaneous orders. However, it would seem that pityriasis versicolor, pemphigus, chilblains, moist eczema, dermatitis, scabies, and leukoderma were all represented.
Human scabies, caused by the Sarcoptes scabiei mite, is one of the most common contagious dermatoses. In HIV patients, this organism can cause crusted scabies, also known as Norwegian scabies, which denotes an overwhelming scabies infestation. In typical scabies, the mites cause extremely pruritic burrows, vesicles, and papules in a characteristic distribution involving the finger webs, sides of the hands and feet, breasts, waist, and groin. Pruritus is most intense at night. In contrast, crusted scabies typically affects the hands and the feet with asymptomatic crusting. Norwegian scabies typically does not cause significant pruritus. Typical scabies involves approximately 15 mites per infected individual, whereas Norwegian scabies involves a hyperinfestation with thousands to millions of mites per individual. Scabies is spread by direct physical contact including sexual contact, and can occur in epidemic form. Transmission is common from mother to infant. Transmission through...
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