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A handbook for field professionals

Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Oxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries

Isaac Ray and the Consolidation of Medical Jurisprudence and Clinical Psychiatry

The Treatise established Ray as a leading authority in the jurisprudence of insanity and earned him an international reputation. The influence of Ray's work spanned the Atlantic and the twentieth century. Ray's Treatise was quoted extensively by the defense in the M'Naghten trial in 1843, and it was cited again more than a century later by Judge David Bazelon in his decision in Durham v. United States (1954 Robinson 1996). More than any other nineteenth century psychiatrist, Isaac Ray has had the greatest impact on current scholarship in legal and forensic psychiatry (Dietz 1978).

Preface and acknowledgements

My original aim was to write a book about seigniorial agriculture in medieval Norfolk but set in a broader regional and national perspective. The Norfolk accounts database (Appendix 2) was therefore the first to be constructed of the core databases upon which this book is based. Work on it was ongoing throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, aided by periods of study leave and successive grants from the Research and Scholarships Fund of The Queen's University of Belfast. In 1983-4 the tenure of a Personal Research Fellowship awarded by the then Social Science Research Council enabled the Norfolk accounts database to be completed and also made possible a preliminary investigation of the inquisitiones post mortem (IPMs) at national level. At that time these two databases were intended to form the substance of this book. Then, in 1987, John Langdon, now Professor of History at the University of Alberta, generously put at my disposal the information on

The Tapestry of Work and Life

The Brontes have attracted substantial scholarship about their lives and works. They have been the subject of multiple biographical studies, and have left substantial personal writings to be analyzed by scholars. They were also prolific in their published manuscripts, leaving enough work to trace the development of form, style, and content. In the case of Charlotte Bronte, even her juvenilia, the 22 little books she wrote in collaboration with her siblings, constitutes a separate area of study, still being deciphered by scholars.

Gender in Demography Increasing Attention

How do we measure the amount and extent of scholarship on gender in demography There are a number of signposts, and most suggest that work on gender has increased significantly over the last 15 years or so. Perhaps the best illustration of the recency of demography's attention to gender is the direct involvement of the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population (IUSSP) in issues of gender (see Federici, Mason, and Sogner 1993). Early discussions in IUSSP led to a 1988 conference on Women's Position and Demographic Change'' and the establishment of a Gender Committee in 1990. Through a series of conferences on various topics related to gender, with many of the conference papers later published in volumes (Federici, Mason, and Sogner 1993 Mason and Jensen 1995 Presser and Sen 2000), IUSSP has provided a space for study and discussion of ways that gender is involved in demographic processes. This is not to say there had been no work on gender in demography before 1988,...

Settings specifically designed to foster creative work

Centers and institutes for creative scholarship Centers for creative thought and scholarship such as the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton, New Jersey and the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Palo Alto, California have been designed to offer scholars many of the same features provided by artists' colonies. In such settings scholars are offered intellectual freedom designated and protected workspaces in the form of private offices and institutional protection from intrusions by the outside world access to information in the form of great libraries, internet connections, and other creative scholars and thinkers in residence with whom numerous opportunities for formal and informal interactions are constructed and, perhaps most importantly, time to think freely and deeply, absent most of the responsibilities associated with contemporary academic life. Though access to such centers is also sharply limited, and though not all potentially eligible scholars...

The division of labour as social ecology

Durkheim observed that mechanization and the concentration of capital forces, brought about by the agrarian and industrial revolutions of the nineteenth century, had led to 'the extreme division of labour'. By this, he was referring to the occupational specialization of society as a whole and the separation of social life into different activities and institutions. It was the economic functions of the division of labour that had hitherto been given prominence in academic scholarship, but Durkheim was primarily concerned with its social significance. He believed that increased specialization in society generated mutual interdependence and thereby contributed to the maintenance of social integration. According to Durkheim, traditional types of society are characterized by 'mechanical' solidarity their social cohesion is derived from likenesses and similarities. The growing complexity of society, he argued, had created a new basis of reciprocity arising from socio-economic specialization...

Dance Creativity and Research

Dance research falls into several large groupings. The majority is theoretical and qualitative (a) anthropological studies of world culture and indigenous dance practices (b) descriptions of historical trends within specific dance genres such as ballet, tap, modern, African, or ballroom (c) historical-biographical accounts that investigate individuals, how they were influenced by their socio-political environments and how they shaped dance and (d) critical inquiry studies that analyze the shifting patterns of dance. Although important and rigorous scholarship has been produced, within the historical-biographical genre, a pattern of idealizing and glamorizing dance artists prevails. Despite this tendency many excellent biographical books, such as those written on Serge Diaghilev, Vaslav Nijinsky, Martha Graham, Fred Astaire, or Tatsumi Hijkata, inform the reader of the unique creative gifts inherent in the artist and the specific contributions they made to the field of dance.

Race and Mental Health Past Debates New Opportunities

Given its pervasiveness in American social life, race as a construct and topic has a long history of scholarship and debate in sociology and a corresponding research literature, albeit not as extensive, in the sociology of mental health. We argue that inquiries about race and its consequences tend to reflect existing attitudes during different time points. In this chapter, we examine some of the key frameworks used in sociology to study race and mental health. Rather than focusing on specific research contributions, we discuss the general themes that highlight how sociology contributes to the study of race and mental health and vice versa. A second purpose of this chapter is to focus on some directions that may help to advance the sociology of mental health.

Higher Level of Abstraction

The concept of abstraction, in terms of where it comes from or how it is derived, continues to be controversial after two millennia of scholarship. Besides the issue of how abstractions are formed, there is a second, frequently overlooked meaning of moving toward higher abstraction Given a preexisting set of abstractions, it is possible to re-represent an object or a domain at a higher level of abstraction. For example, Chi, Feltovich, and Glaser (1981) showed that physicists represented routine physics problems in terms of the deep principles that would be needed to construct a solution, whereas physics novices (those who have taken one course in college with an A grade)

Relational Psychoanalysis

In the interest of concisely summarizing an enormous body of scholarship, we regret only being able to name and cite a small fraction of the many contributors who have been influential. We recommend the following short selection of essential texts for further reading. There is no substitute for beginning with Greenberg and Mitchell's 119831 Object Relations in Psychoanalytic Theory. Our reference list also includes several other of Mitchell's books that are invaluable. You can find most of the essential papers in relational psychoanalysis in the edited volumes titled Relational Psychoanalysis (Aron and Harris 2005 Mitchell and Aran 1999 Suchet et al. 20071. Two additional volumes of essential papers are now in press and all are included in the Relational Perspectives Book Series published by Routledge.

Domain Basis for Friendships

Friendships among creative children are important for development of self-esteem and for intimacy, particularly as students become teenagers. To share passions with like minds is important for well-being, as well as for generation of ideas, testing novel ideas, and growing cognitively and creatively. However, such friendships may be fraught with problems. Creative young people have the need to be valued and to share their interests with others. At the same time, there is a need to have time and space alone to focus on their own work. There is also the competition for the same scholarships or awards, for accomplishment, and the need to be 'the best,' especially among young performers. Such conflicts may lead creative young people to eschew one aspect for the other. How to find a balance that is both personally satisfying and allows for the freedom to create is a challenge.

The First Heart Transplant

(always be remembered as the heart surgeon who performed the first successful heart transplant using a human donor heart. He attended medical school at the University of Cape Town, South Africa, where he received training in general surgery. Then, in 1956, he received a two-year scholarship to study surgery at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

Representing incommensurability in frames

A conceptual structure widely shared by mechanical natural philosophers in the early eighteenth century but by no means universally accepted. While supporters of the new philosophy would find the concepts laid out in this frame familiar and acceptable, the wider community of scholarship still included many people who accepted Aristotelian or Tychonic views of the world that would be incompatible with much or all of this structure.

International Substance Abuse Organizations

Founded in 1990, INCASE is a professional association of individuals, programs, and students specializing in addiction studies, including the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs, other addictions, counselor preparation, prevention and treatment, research, and public policy. Its purpose is to provide a global forum for the examination and debate of issues concerning postsecondary education in addiction studies, and to enhance the quality of training and education in addiction studies, to disseminate professional knowledge and share ideas regarding addition studies and scholarship, and to develop standards and implement an accreditation process for addictions studies programs within and between nations, states, and provinces.

Theories of Legal Reasoning Formalism2

The first move toward legal realism was Sociological Jurisprudence, which was expounded most explicitly by Roscoe Pound (1912). Like Holmes, Pound felt that the mechanical jurisprudence of the formalists was out of touch with social reality and that legal scholarship and judicial norms were standing still, out of touch with exciting developments in philosophy and, particularly, the social sciences. Jurisprudence, he argued, is the last in the march of sciences away from the method of deduction from predetermined conceptions (Pound, 1909, p. 464). The strict doctrinal approach blinded legal writers to two essential considerations first, the purposes of the law - the goal of doing justice rather than following the letter of the law and second, the social, cultural, and psychological factors that influenced behavior, including the behavior of lawmakers and judges. Blind adherence to the abstract law-on-the-books might make for greater certainty and predictability, but reasonable and just...

The future shape of nursing work

Normally referred to as the theory-practice gap. As Melia (1987) has observed, the main base for those who subscribe to a professional view of nursing has tended to be in the educational sector among people who have little responsibility for day-to-day service provision. Although this situation may now be changing - for example, we saw that nurse managers at Woodlands espoused a version of nursing that embraced many features of the professional vision - the tension between the version of nursing work promulgated in the lecture theatre and the reality of nursing work remains a continuing problem. Having formulated the 'essence' of nursing in terms of an close inter-personal therapeutic relationship with patients in order to establish epistemological demarcation from medicine, much contemporary nursing scholarship appears to be directed at the establishment of a boundary between nursing theory and the social science disciplines on which it has so heavily drawn. A corollary of this is...

The Challenge of Transfer

Empirical research shows us that the prospects of transfer cannot be utterly bleak. In the second section of this article, we offered a number of existence proofs for magnitude, persistence, and transfer of impact, and more appeared in the subsequent section. Before looking further at such results, let us hear the case for meager transfer. At least three lines of scholarship pose a challenge to transfer - research on transfer itself, research on expertise and the role of knowledge in cognition, and research on situated cognition. We will look briefly at each in turn.

The demography of malaria

Rambla Verdaguer Girona

Bonelli rightly observed that in order to understand the impact of malaria on Italy in the past it is not enough simply to consider its demographic effects in purely quantitative terms.1 It also influenced the entire lifestyle of people, even if it did not kill them, by forcing them to live away from the fields in which they had to work. In other words, malaria altered settlement patterns.2 Old Salpi in Apulia was the most dramatic example of this in antiquity (see Ch. 10 below), but malaria also influenced settlement patterns within the city of Rome itself, as will be seen later (Ch. 8 below). Malaria influenced agricultural systems by preventing intensive farming practices (Ch. 9 below). Nevertheless consideration of the demographic effects of malaria in purely mathematical and statistical terms is essential to understand the scale of its impact. The most fundamental weakness of nearly all recent literature on the question of the effects of malaria in Italy in antiquity is the...

Dr Frank H Bassett III

To those of us who trained in the Duke program, the ultimate example of the team physician has always been Dr. Frank H. Bassett III. Dr. Bassett played for Coach Paul Bear Bryant at the University of Kentucky before being drafted into the military and serving in the Korean conflict. He was the first infantry soldier to try out the new body armor and this ultimately saved his life when he was shot but sustained only bruises rather than a through and through gunshot wound that would have occurred without the protective body armor. He was awarded the Purple Heart for this incident. He subsequently did his training at Duke under Lenox Baker and became the head team physician at Duke University in 1966. Dr. Bassett cared for the athletic teams at Duke for over 30 years and was the epitome of the true team physician (Fig. 1-5). In his honor, the Bassett Society has been created to provide scholarship support for Duke lettermen who enter medical and dental school.

Communications Systems and Structural Theories

At the time of diagnosis it was at Stage 4, with little hope for remission. His attitude was exemplary and he continued to work and live a full and meaningful life for well over a year. His wife sought counselling before and after his death, both for her own needs but more so for the children. Their grief was not easy, despite the anticipation and preparation. The children were 17 and 18, with developmental issues facing them as well as the untimely death of their father. Based on the above description of an adaptive family, this family were intimate with their feelings, yet allowed individual differences. All willingly shared the tasks and roles that had been their father's husband's. His wife was insightful in terms of her children's developmental tasks and where the family was in their life cycle. She encouraged differentiation as they prepared to leave home for college, yet they pulled together for the three years following his death to restructure the family. The...

New Opportunities New Challenges

One attempt to understand these assaults and their impacts is the scholarship on historical trauma, defined as the trauma that arises in response to numerous traumatic events experienced by a community over several generations (Brave Heart, 1999b). The trauma is based on events that are profoundly destructive and experienced by many members of a community (Brave Heart, 1999b). Historical trauma is conceptualized as collective in that it impacts a significant portion of the community and as compounding in so much as multiple events occurring over many years come to be seen as parts of a single, overarching traumatic legacy. A key facet of historical trauma is that it is passed on from one generation to the next, as descendents continue to emotionally identify with their ancestral suffering and pain (Brave Heart, 1999a). Indeed, research among diverse populations shows that children and grandchildren of survivors of historically traumatic events have high levels of current interest in...

Islamic and Indian Medicine

The Hellenic culture had in large part been developed in the Near East and was an integral part of the Near Eastern culture inherited by the Muslims. The belief that the Greek sciences were transported from the Occident to the Orient, where they were preserved in Arabic translation until their eventual repatriation by the Occident, is mistaken. The infusion of Greek scholarship transformed the Arabic language and Islamic culture and must be viewed as a major historical process in which Islamic civilization energetically built on the existing Near and Middle Eastern cultures. The major period of translation spanned the years from the ninth to the eleventh century and was a complex process that drew on several routes of cultural transmission. Even before the Muslim conquest, numerous Greek texts had been translated into Syriac, and many of these as well as a few original medical works written in Syriac were in turn translated to Arabic. The transmission of Greek scholarship into Arabic,...

Paganism Versus Fundamentalist Religion The Medieval Europeans

But while there is no reason to suppose that the Dark Ages were dark solely because they were religious, it is none the less difficult to exaggerate their darkness, both as regards scientific knowledge and the completeness of the break between the science of antiquity and the science of modern times. Here the traditional view is justified, and it only becomes false when this judgment is extended from the early to the late Middle Ages so as to make the scientific development of Western Europe begin with the Renaissance. In reality the recovery of Greek science and the restoration of the contact with the main tradition of Greek thought was one of the most striking achievements of medieval culture. And it is even more than this it is the turning point in the history of Western civilization, for it marks the passing of the age-long supremacy of oriental and eastern Mediterranean culture and the beginning of the intellectual leadership of the West. It is, in fact, a far more important and...

Series Foreword

Another major strength of the volume is how it identifies research needs. These are noted in many of the chapters, and the concluding chapter discusses specific improvements that future research could make in participants, settings, obtrusiveness, and degree of participant involvement. This concluding chapter also describes needed conceptual and empirical scholarship. This is particularly important because we want the volume to stimulate research. The more the questions and methodologies are developed by these experts, the better other researchers can use the information to do new research. For scholars who are interested in discrimination, this concluding chapter presents an excellent summary of the important issues and a roadmap for guiding future research. We all hope this volume will energize researchers and stimulate new ideas about how to understand and deal with discrimination in organizations.

The Brain

Great Clarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6dp Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide in Oxford New York Auckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong Karachi Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City Nairobi New Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices in

Education in Britain

It created a very difficult and embarrassing financial condition for the three brothers, who had to survive together on Sri Aurobindo's scholarships. For years they lived a very Spartan life, at times having insufficient food to eat and little money to spend on other necessities. He and his brothers later moved to London where Sri Aurobindo won a scholarship to King's College of Cambridge University. His competition papers were judged to be the best ever seen by an examiner who happened to be a noted writer (Oscar Browning). At Cambridge, Sri Aurobindo set three major goals for himself. The first was to study for his B.A. degree and prepare for the 'Indian Civil Services' (ICS) examination the second was writing poetry the third was to participate in the activities of the Indian Majlis and to work toward India's independence. Sri Aurobindo's father wanted his son to qualify for ICS, to be one of the top administrative officials in India. In deference to his father's wishes he sat in...

Parallel Thought

As a student at Rugby and Oxford, Charles demonstrated outstanding scholarship and talent in mathematics, classical humanities, and divinity. However, as a teacher in his chosen field of mathematics and logic it would appear that he was less than inspiring to his students and he gained little satisfaction from it. There are also indications that he found giving sermons a burden. The liveliness of his thought expressed in his fantasies for children was not expressed in his lectures and sermons. Perhaps his lifelong problem with stuttering accounts for some of this.

Stacy Dezutter

In recent decades, scholars who study learning have reached a consensus about the robustness of constructivist theory for understanding how people learn, particularly how people learn deep conceptual knowledge (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2003 Sawyer, 2006b Siegler, 1998). Constructivist learning theory views learning as a process in which individuals construct new knowledge by reorganizing their existing knowledge in light of experiences that challenge their present understandings. Whereas constructivism is a descriptive theory of the learning process, and therefore makes no prescriptions for teaching, there is a wealth of scholarship that considers how we might leverage a constructivist understanding of learning in order to optimize the teaching process. Specific recommendations vary across content areas, but there are some general features that have emerged as hallmarks of constructivist-based teaching (Richardson, 2003 Windschitl, 2002). To begin, the core idea behind...

Brief History

Well-known creativity author Donald W. MacKinnon identified five criteria for creativity in products the product's originality, adaptiveness (its ability to solve a problem), its elegance and other aesthetic qualities, its transcendence (the ability to transform or transcend reality), and 'realization' (the product's development and elaboration, evaluation and communication to others). He pointed the way to product-related scholarship by his own research on architects identified as especially creative by their peers. Later, MacKinnon guessed that the explicit determination of the qualities which identify creative products had been largely neglected because we implicitly know - or think we know - a creative product when we see it.

Concluding Comments

Year, the MFP had given 1,257 awards to a diverse group of graduate students 216 African Americans, 120 Latinos, 28 Native Americans, and 81 Asian Americans. While NIMH intended that the funds would increase the number of minority scholars studying mental health issues, it also had the indirect effect of increasing the number of minority sociologists who went into other fields. A number of MFP students did not focus on mental health issues, but eventually went on to make contributions to sociology and the scholarship on race. Larry Bobo and Michael Omi are two examples of sociologists who received MFP funding and have been influential in developing general sociological work on race that holds important insights, not always recognized, for the study of race and mental health. More directly, the work of David Williams, and a score of other past MFP fellows have been critical to bringing issues of race and ethnicity to the forefront of mental health research. Contemporary sociology of...

Benefits to Mentees

Creative unusual ideas require risk-taking, and are often met with ridicule. A safe and supportive environment is essential, therefore, for creative ideas to emerge. Mentors teach their men-tees on how to evaluate their creative work and deal with rejection. They respect and support their mentees, while providing support for experimenting with ideas and risk-taking. Errors and mistakes can be made safely within the relationship without fear of being judged as inadequate. Mentors provide valuable experiences to their mentees, such as enriching their career and providing support for their future career goals. Men-tees feel comfortable in their uniqueness while with mentors, and this comfort may translate into other relationships. Mentors also provide opportunities for meaningful experiences and share with their mentees joy of creative achievement. In addition, mentors can sometimes provide material support, such as books, computers, laboratory facilities or trips to conferences,...

Summary

At the beginning of the camp, Frank was shy and somewhat withdrawn. However, as the week progressed, he became a natural leader of the group. He was vocal in his emotions and an active participant in the sharing of stories. After the camp was over, he continued to attend monthly meetings. In the years that followed, he also became involved in his high-school's task force for grief intervention and was actively involved in the consolation of classmates who lost a loved one. He graduated high school in the spring of 2006 as the lead scorer of the state runner-up soccer team and is currently attending college on a full-ride athletic scholarship. More importantly, his mother describes him as a self-assured, caring person who has learned how to balance the loss of his father with enjoying life.

Origins

Whereas Sociobiology devoted most of its pages to animal social existence, Wilson's On Human Nature - his Pulitzer Prize winning book published in 1978 - flashed the new science's intense beam into the depths of human behavior and sociality. A few years later, Wilson and I (in the 1981 Genes, Mind and Culture and the 1983 Promethean Fire) introduced gene-culture coevolution as sociobiology's key to mind and culture, humanity's symbolic worlds. In his 1998 Consilience, Wilson turned that key on behalf of universal scholarship, arguing powerfully that a sociobiological approach to mind and culture opens the path to essential unification not only among the sciences of humankind, but within and between the sciences and the humanities themselves.

Waiting and Watching

In that process, medical services, overwhelmingly controlled and practiced by male doctors, become indispensable (Davis-Floyd and Sargent 1997 Ehrenreich and English 1978 Kobrin 1966 Rothman 1982 Wertz and Wertz 1977). Yet as other feminist researchers have pointed out, the powerful critique of the medicalization of pregnancy should not obscure its potential to alleviate the material dangers and consequences that childbearing holds for some women Historically, maternal suffering and death figured large in female consciousness (Leavitt 1986), and maternal and infant morbidity and mortality continue to plague poor communities, where improvements in both the quantity and quality of prenatal care could and should prevent needless affliction (Christmas n.d. Kochanek et al. 1994 Queen 1994). Thus many women may experience the constraints of medical control, while others are still struggling to enjoy medicine's benefits. Both stories are true and embedded in the increasingly...

Prehistoric Europe

The civilizations of Mycenaean Greece and of Minoan Crete are discoveries of the last century. Before excavations at the site of Troy and among the Greek cities of Homeric renown, along with Crete, the period covered by the Homeric epics was an unknown. Scholarship has translated much, inferred much, and given us striking impressions of these lost societies. From the point of view of disease, we have little to offer. Mycenaean civilization seems to have fallen to outside invaders. There is no evidence to support disease as a major factor in the decline of either mainland Greek or Minoan civilization. The latter may plausibly be linked to a natural disaster. The disease history of these fascinating cultures remains beyond our grasp.

Medical Literature

The concept that indigenous conditions must be considered was increasingly incorporated into medical as well as agricultural writings. China's influence on medical philosophy remained strong, but interest in the study and exploitation of Korea's own traditional folk remedies stimulated the development of independent medical scholarship as may be seen in the Hyang-yak kugup pang (Emergency Remedies of Folk Medicine 1236).