Ways To Develop Your Self Esteem

Strong and Confident You

Strong and Confident You

Within this audio series and guide Strong And Confident You you will learn everything you are needing to know about Hypnotherapy To Release Your Inner Strength And Confidence.

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Quantum Confidence With The Morry Method

Song Chengxiang is a psychologist, and the developer of Quantum Confidence With TMM, and this man also has experienced the Morry Method brainwave entrainment technology. With the Quantum Confidence System you get a series of recordings, dont confuse yourself. Its not music. Its a finely honed and sculpted frequency that have been carefully arranged in such a way as to have a profound and beneficial effect when used regularly with or without headphones. Your confidence is packed in CDs of four modules. Thats the entire Quantum Confidence System that is going to change your life forever. The Morry Method let learners release specific combinations of endorphins, neurotransmitters, together with hormones that bring specific results and benefits. Besides, The Morry Method utilizes unique, and more powerful isochronic and monaural tones. The author explains that these special brainwave entrainment tones have more uniform wave shapes. This system must be considered much in the same way, it is important once you get to the point where you want to be that you keep up a maintenance routine, a routine designed to maintain your results, without it you definitely run the risk of returning to the state that you were in previous to your use of the Quantum Confidence system.

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What Self Esteem Is

Authentic self-esteem in children does not come from adults offering unearned rewards or praise. Kids as young as 7 know when they're hearing an untruth about themselves. For instance, if an adult tells a child how fabulously he just did at bat after he struck out, he'll sense the adult's false praise.

Self Confidence and Arrogance

Self-confidence and arrogance represent another set of traits that involve internal locus which are related to autonomy. The argument is that people are more confident in terms of expressing their ideas if they do not have to think about others' influence, and most of the time they may even be more superior to others. In our world, where competition is an important factor in achieving success, accomplishment depends highly on the level of dominance, arrogance, and self-confidence of any given person. In this respect, the paper of Raymond Van Zelst and Willard Kerr shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between being productive and describing oneself as 'argumentative,' 'assertive,' and 'self-confident.'

About Self Esteem

Self-esteem is defined simply as a realistic, appreciative opinion of oneself. Realistic means that we see ourselves accurately and honestly, neither inflating nor deflating our strengths or importance. Appreciative implies positive feelings of liking and accepting. The person with self-esteem is generally secure. Secure means free from fear and doubt not troubled stable safe from damage or attack. Secure people are aware of their strengths and weaknesses, and are comfortable with who they are inside. They are deeply and quietly glad to be who they are. They are relatively safe from attack because they know deep inside that nothing anyone can do or say can change their abiding worth as a human being. People with self-esteem have no need for arrogance or destructive pride the belief that they are more worthwhile as a person than others, or more capable than they are. Arrogance and destructive pride lead to enmity and competition, rather than cooperation. They cause us to view people on...

Self Esteem

Self-esteem is defined as a person's feelings about her worth. Self-esteem and self-respect may appear to be synonyms, but as Jack Westman points out, they are not. He explains self-esteem can be on a low-high continuum based on fantasy, whereas self-respect is based on reality. Self-esteem arises from within. You can have a good feeling about yourself high self-esteem, which is based on fantasy and still be a selfish, inconsiderate person. Children who have been spoiled can have high self-esteem, which crashes when they are frustrated or don't get the sort of approval they have come to expect. In contrast, self-respect arises from without and refers to how you value yourself in relation to other people. It is having a good evaluation or judgment of yourself validated by realistic accomplishments and experiences with other people. Self-respect gives rise to authentic high self-esteem from internally generated feelings based on reality. This authentic self-esteem in children is...

The effect on child development

According to Endenburg and Baarda (1995), pet ownership encourages the development of social and emotional skills and may enhance cognitive and learning powers in children (Poresky & Hendrix 1988). By helping to care for a pet a child can acquire nurturing skills and, when praised by an adult for performing a task well, will build up self-esteem. However, it is important that a child is supervised in the care of pets and is never given a task beyond the capabilities of its age. Fogle (1983) suggests that 10 years is the minimum age that a child can be expected to fully take care of an animal. One of the many benefits that a pet can give a child is unconditional love, particularly when the child is upset, in disfavour with parents or having problems at school. Often the child is able to talk about their problems to a pet when they feel unable to communicate with another person. Unfortunately, a pet can only give affection in return and therefore should only be considered as part of a...

Benefits to elderly people

The positive effects that pets have on human health can be applied to all age groups but perhaps the greatest benefit that companion animals bring to the elderly is their ability to help them cope with loss. Loss refers not only to the death of close relatives or friends but also to the loss of a job following retirement and the loss of children once they have left home. The bereavement of a spouse can include the loss of a confidante and possible social isolation, thus compounding the effect of prolonged stress. Investigations into the effects of bereavement on the elderly have shown that pet owners suffered significantly less depression than those without pets (Hart 1995). Job loss and the lack of having someone to nurture are factors known to cause low self-esteem and pets can play a vital role in fulfilling the need to nurture and giving reassurance of self-worth (Enders-Slegers 2000).

Important Times for Psychosocial Interventions

Patients living with chronic illness require sensitive psychosocial care. Managing a chronic health problem challenges a person's ability to adhere to a myriad of medical recommendations, making it more difficult to cope with other life stressors. Patients often deal with the predictable set of issues in highly idiosyncratic ways. Adequate attention to these issues can make medical management easier and more successful. These issues can often be effectively addressed within the physician-patient relationship and through judicious referral to support groups for chronically ill patients. Pollin (1995) identified eight emotionally charged issues that patients with chronic illnesses inevitably confront control, self-image, dependency, stigma, abandonment, anger, isolation, and death. The professional stance useful in assisting the patient with each issue is important. In response to control issues, for example, professionals should help patients express their feelings of loss of control...

Care of the Elderly Patient

This chapter discusses common geriatric syndromes and outlines a process by which the family physician can effectively and efficiently care for the elderly patient. The main goal is to assist elderly persons to maintain function and quality of life with self-respect, preserving their lifestyle as much as possible. The chapter addresses functional assessment, falls, elder abuse, pressure ulcers, rational drug prescribing, and incontinence geriatric conditions such as dementia, delirium, and depression are discussed in other chapters.

Through the Looking Glass The Fortunes of the Sociology of Mental Health

From its very beginning, mental health has been central to the sociological understanding of society. Concerned about issues of life, death and well-being, the founders of sociology staked a claim for a new discipline concerned with how larger historical forces and new institutional structures shaped the fate of individuals. Marx (1964, p. 11) found alienation inherent in all modern institutions, but particularly when immersion in the workplace destroys a person's inner life (1964, p. 122). Durkheim (1951 1954) wondered how the normlessness of modern life, anomie, would predispose individuals to suicide and he grappled with the loss of faith that he saw as endemic to the transition to modern society (see also Masaryk, 1970, on earlier, similar concerns). Simmel considered how the greater freedoms of modern society are accompanied by psychological tensions or even a schizophrenic break despite greater societal tolerance. He saw external and internal conflicts which arise through the...

Clinical Manifestations

Certain behavioral and physical signs should raise suspicion for elder abuse. Behavioral signs in the caregiver include answering for the patient, insisting on being present for the entire visit, failing to offer assistance, and displaying indifference or anger. Behavioral signs in the elderly patient include poor eye contact, hesitation to talk openly, or fearfulness toward the caregiver. Other indicators of possible abuse include confusion, paranoia, anxiety, anger, and low self-esteem. Physical signs that may signal neglect include poor hygiene, malnutrition, dehydration, pressure ulcers, and injuries (Table 4-7). Medication nonadherence may also be a warning sign for abuse.

Psychotic Syndromes

In patients with chronic mild or moderately severe anxiety, benzodiazepines, used sparingly for a few weeks to several months, can be helpful. When chronic treatment is necessary, buspirone, tricyclic antidepressants, and MAO inhibitors may be utilized in selected patients, particularly those with concomitant depression. Beta-blockers may also be useful in certain cases. Referral to a neuropsychologist or psychotherapist for training in self-reliance and relaxation techniques including biofeedback, meditation, and self-hypnosis should also be considered. The treatment of obsessive compulsive disorders should involve both pharmacological and psychological measures. Medications can significantly reduce the symptoms in over 50 percent of patients. Clomipramine is generally considered the drug of first choice, but other drugs with serotonergic properties such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, and clonazepam can be used.

Varieties Of Modernity

Modernization tends to be portrayed in close proximity to Westernization, the products of which include personal autonomy, self-reliance, future orientation, a strong appetite for change, capitalistic heroism, and suc-cess-mindedness. However, this combination of characteristics is representative of American-style modernization and does not reflect an inevitable outcome of modernity. In this regard, it has been demonstrated

Motivation and Defense

The assumption that certain motives and desires would be accessible to consciousness were they not repressed and disavowed is, of course, a statement regarding inner conflict and the operation of defense, which is itself motivated. In other words, certain motives, wishes, and desires are barred from conscious awareness and disavowed because of the dysphoric affects, such as anxiety, guilt, and lowered self-esteem, that awareness and avowal would entail. Hence, the basic motivation for defense is the avoidance of unpleasant affects. Devel-opmcntally oriented psychoanalytic accounts of defense suggest that certain wishes and desires are disavowed and denied access to consciousness because they arc-associated with negative affects engendered by early parental disapproval and prohibition and a variety of Other subtle parental communications. Freud (1926 192f ) referred to the danger situations of loss of the


A lawsuit is an assault on one's self-image and reputation. It is physically and financially draining. We do not, however, want to spend our professional lives looking over our shoulders. In the following pages, we will look at the day-to-day practices of genetic counselors and try to identify areas in which possible sources of liability can be found. We will discuss how a genetic counselor can change her behavior and possibly minimize her exposure to lawsuits. No one is exempt from the experience. Although there are no assurances that you or I as individuals or as members of a team will never be named in a lawsuit, we want to heighten our awareness so that we can say with conviction that nothing we have done has left us vulnerable to being sued.

Models of Adaptation and Coping

The model focuses on child and parental adaptational processes rather than on biomedical or demographic factors, due in part to the importance of the former in intervention efforts. Several studies have been conducted to test relationships within this model, particularly with regard to child health locus of control and self-esteem (e.g., Gil et al. 1991).

Long Term Adaptation to

In contrast to the acute illness literature, studies have consistently failed to show that age affects behavior problems or self-esteem in chronically ill pe-diatric populations (Wallander and Thompson 1995). However, studies are needed to assess the influences of child age on developmental adjustment, particularly in terms of the effects of developmental

The History of Socioenvironmental Studies at the NIMH

John Clausen, Melvin Kohn, Morris Rosenberg, Leonard Pearlin, Erwin Goffman Social Isolation and Schizophrenia (Kohn & Clausen, 1955), Social Class and Parental Values (Kohn, 1959), Asylums Essays on the Social Situation of the Mental Patient (Goffman, 1961), Society and the Adolescent Self Image (Rosenberg, 1965), Class and Conformity (Kohn, 1969), The Structure of Coping (Pearlin and Schooler, 1978), Work and Personality (Kohn & Schooler, 1983). All of these - I believe I can fairly say - illustrious sociologists and their seminally influential sociological works were part of the history of the LSES before the departure from the Laboratory in 1985 of Melvin Kohn, who in 1963 succeeded John Clausen to become the second chief of the LSES. After Kohn's departure a departure that cannot reasonably be described as happy the Laboratory was reduced to Section status (SSES), an organizationally significant reduction in status but one that fortunately, because of other changes in the IRP...

Clothing systems and protection

Aesthetic design can affect the success or failure of a clothing system through the way it makes the user feel, allows for personal expression, and generally enables the psychological functions of clothing, but there is very little research on this particular area. However, evidence is growing that fashionability affects the way protective clothing is perceived. For example, health care workers in Belgium and Holland found the garments they used for work boring and basic, so Belgium healthcare supplier Sacro introduced 'denim look' textiles into the garments in their range, which are now being used as part of the clothing systems in major hospitals in Antwerp, Brussels and Ghent ('Denim look hits healthcare', Company Clothing, July 2004, p32). Although there is no substantial evidence due to lack of research in the area, this article suggest that design and aesthetics can influence the attitude and possibly the performance of the user, through increased self-esteem. (Similarly, in a...

Therapeutic Interventions

Help the client to understand the relationship between childhood trauma and current problems with trust, anger, self-esteem, or depression. 15. Teach the client about the AA NA concept of a higher power, and how the higher power can assist him her in forgiving others and reestablishing self-esteem. him her in forgiving others and reestablishing self-esteem.

Interpersonal Relationships

Before the eating disorder got so strong, I wanted to look good now I want to look sick, maybe because I want to hurt some people. For sure it has to do with my parents. But I also want them to take control to care forme . Maybe I don't have enough self-confidence to think people will care for me if I don ft have an eating disorder.

Early Postoperative Rehabilitation Stage

If surgery is performed, the athlete is transformed from an athletic person (with the healthy self-image associated with physical activity) to a bedridden, disabled patient. To counteract the negative aspects of this stage (from both a physical and psychological standpoint), it is necessary to initiate a program of rehabilitation goals. Providing an athlete with well-leg aerobic workouts following knee surgery encourages a goal-seeking attitude and helps the athlete maintain aerobic conditioning. In addition, setting appropriate goals for the injured area, for example, achieving a certain range of motion or level of exer-cise intensity, permits the patient to take an active part in treatment and assume a level of control over the postoperative environment.

Individual Differences

Measures of implicit attitudes and stereotypes, assessed using response latency techniques, have helped to identify who is likely to exhibit these types of subtle biases. In general, response time measures relate to a wide range of personal characteristics and orientations, such as self-esteem and political ideology (Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski, & Sulloway, 2003), and these measures have been used to increase the accuracy of predicting voting behavior, other political positions, and consumer behavior (Bassili, 1995 Fazio, Powell, & Williams, 1989). Using response time measures to assess implicit feelings about Blacks and self-report techniques to measure explicit attitudes, Dovidio, Kawakami, and Gaertner (2002) evaluated the effects of White individuals' unconscious (implicit) and conscious (explicit) attitudes on discrimination. Explicit attitudes shape deliberative, well-considered responses (e.g., overt judgments) for which people have the motivation and opportunity to weigh the...

Attempting to Make a Decision

When Cezanne was 19, Zola left for Paris to become an artist, and the two friends expected to join him after taking their exams. Cezanne in fact took three years to get away (Baille never did), and the hesitations of those three years, and the correspondence he kept up with Zola, help us reconstruct his psychodynamics. Zola tried to bolster Cezanne's self-confidence and kept encouraging him to come to Paris. Cezanne instead studied for his baccalaureate exams, and to satisfy his father entered law school. This failed to interest him increasingly he dreamed of painting, and enrolled in the free drawing academy of Aix, where he at least studied from plaster casts and the living model. He also became acquainted with the work some of it landscape work of Provence's painters. Eventually his father came to understand that painting was what Cezanne most wanted to do, gave him a monthly stipend, and went with him to Paris to help set him up.

Impact of Skin Disease on the Patient

Diseases of the skin play a profound role in the way the affected patient interacts socially. If located on visible skin surfaces, long-standing skin diseases may actually interfere with the emotional and psychologic development of the individual. The attitude of a person toward self and others may be markedly affected. Loss of self-esteem is common. The adult with a skin disorder often faces limitation of sexual activity. This disruption of intimacy can foster or increase hostility and anxiety in the patient. Skin is a sensitive marker of an individual's emotions. It is known that blushing can reflect embarrassment, sweating can indicate anxiety, and pallor or ''goose bump'' skin may be associated with fear.

Ethical issues in developmental psychology research

Other procedures may be less clearly distressing but may also be unjustified. Considerable care has to be taken that children are not subject to loss of self-esteem, embarrassment or a feeling of exclusion. The latter can be an important factor to consider where the majority of children in a group, such as a school class, take part in a study but a small minority are excluded because, for example, they have a specific learning difficulty or English as an additional language. These issues are considered at some length in the next chapter, especially in connection with Paper 1.

Theme Five Internal and External Barriers to Creative Work in Women

Although Camille may have suffered from periodic self-doubt, self-criticism and comparisons to others, her life was marked more by her belief in her talent, feelings of superiority to others, and disdain for those less dedicated to art. This confidence and self-esteem was characteristic of her family, and Camille seems to have gotten a strong dose of both. There is no evidence that she ever doubted her talent she blamed her failures on Rodin. As her situation worsened, she blamed Rodin's friends as well as part of the conspiracy.

Target Responses and Strategies

Frequently recognize that their group is discriminated against but tend to deny the same level of personal experience with discrimination (Crosby, 1984). This denial of personal discrimination may be functional viewing oneself as a victim can lower one's self-esteem, lead to self-blame, and threaten one's sense of control (Crocker & Major, 1994). Denying discrimination, therefore, may help targets maintain a positive self-concept. In addition, targets who complain about being victims of discrimination are disliked and highly reprimanded (Kaiser & Miller, 2001), thereby reinforcing underestimation strategies.

The Freefloating Individualistic Structure Of Identity

By contrast, reciprocal individualism involves a form of independence and self-reliance that remains tied to the goal of group harmony and concern with the welfare of the collective. As we have seen, the individualistic activities found in some non-Western cultures are acted out in the wider perception that the person is fused to, as well as responsible to, the community. Individualism of the reciprocal variety entails self-differentiation that is associated with high affiliation and with a social distancing process that entails a simultaneous relatedness. The community remains the person's center, rather than the person's becoming centered in himself or herself. This permits the unfolding of the individual's potentialities while he or she enjoys the benefits of a symbiotic connection to the wider community.

What Makes a Binge Bulimic

Note that overeating in and of itself does not lead to bulimia. Some binges are just splurges, mini self-indulgences that are fun and filled with the appreciation of food and the people with whom you share it. Some are opportunities to let off steam, reward yourself for an accomplishment, take a break in your routine, or give yourself a tirne-out from tedium. If you know why you're eating in this way, you don't follow the binge by a purge, or you don't find that occasional overeating or splurging interferes with how you live your life or think about your self-worth, your binge is not bulimic behavior.

The Computer as Productivity Tools

UNESCO opines that the computer is evolving into a tool to facilitate learning of most of the educational properties of older technologies (books, radio, film strips, phonograph records, television) with at least equal if not greater convenience of use plus communication capabilities. Computers can also be very accommodating - they can reach students at different study levels, any time of the day or night. Additionally, the sense of independence and accomplishment a computer offers children helps fuel their self-confidence. Alden has expressed that relying on a computer as a tool may be one of the most effective ways to build both a child's learning skills and self-esteem.

Humanistic or Holistic Approach to Creativity

Humanistic psychologists feel that creativity develops throughout life and can be cultivated throughout the life span. They believe that humans, not divine, cosmic, or other forces determine their own fate. This is not to say that humanism is atheistic, but that self-reliance is a natural human trait. Rogers and Maslow take a holistic approach since they see the creative product as the result of an interaction between the creative person and his her situation. Dacey states that They see creativity as more conscious, cognitive and intentional than do the psychoanalysts. The humanistic concept is that creativity is born through a striving for the highest possibilities in life, rather than as a defence against neurosis.

Why Conformity and Creativity Dont

In an influential early (1962) chapter, Richard Crutchfield described conformist motivation as ego-involved. Conformists are strongly focused on how they are perceived by other group members, and their primary goal is to protect or enhance their self-image and self-esteem. In contrast, creative performance tends to require strong task-involvement - that is, an exclusive focus on the problem at hand, in combination with a desire to get to the bottom of things no matter where the search leads. Unfortunately, the 'search' may often lead in directions which contradict or upset established beliefs, practices, or bureaucracies. In order to develop and market their new ideas individuals must often be willing to diverge strongly from group norms and accepted behavior, risking alienation and potentially drawing the group's wrath. Thus, one way in which conformist pressures may inhibit creativity is by reducing a person's willingness to follow through with a new idea or course of action. This...

The End of Repression as a Psychological Defense

Supplanting a coordinated social strategy that regulates attention to inner impulses is a marketplace that supports itself by perpetual indoctrinations that foster a sense of personal entitlement. An important secondary process is the cultural manufacture of unwarranted self-esteem that increases the amount of entitlement the person will seriously entertain. Psychologists are gradually coming to recognize entitlement as one of the central defining characteristics of the modern psyche, and as one of the new social traits around which psychological symptoms are constructed.

Conceptualizing the Therapeutic Process

Hazleden (2003) similarly finds Foucault's perspective useful for understanding contemporary psychotherapeutic discourses, even when self-control is not a prominent theme. Despite the apparent tendency to emphasize self-love over self-control, Hazleden nonetheless believes that Foucault's concept normalization aptly describes psychotherapeutic discourse in contemporary advanced societies. Reviewing popular self-help books, she shows that these texts, while presenting themselves as guidebooks for discovering and properly nurturing the true self within, convey a set of specific messages about the proper relationship the individual should develop with oneself. They teach the individual to regard the self as of paramount importance, to consider love and nurturance of self a serious responsibility (not self-indulgence, but rather hard work ), and to maintain self-sufficiency.

Socio Economic Context for Creative Trajectories Development

According to Jean Piaget, although all young children are creative because they must invent the world, to reach higher creative levels typically requires supportive environments, with sufficient socioeconomic and familial possibilities. Pallas suggested that pathways can illuminate structures that support or inhibit this development through constraints, choices, or incentives. Opportunity structures, such as parents who value education or a social network that enhances job possibilities, as well as individual agency, the zeal to pursue a passion, can both lead to status attainment. He noted that while some young people by virtue of their socio-economic status have pathways that offer greater educational opportunities, which lead them toward higher educational levels and hence, greater creative possibilities, some individual trajectories maybe influenced positively or negatively by the choices a person makes. However, Pallas stated that generally inequalities get passed along and...

What youll choose to change will depend on your unique set of circumstances your goals the time frame you set for

A number of tools can help you get comfortable with this initial process of recovery, some of which you may already know about, such as journal writing, taking relaxation breaks, and cultivating relationships with people you trust and enjoy. Other steps will probably be new to you, such as taking dictation from yourself by answering deeply personal questions noting, challenging and changing your negative self-talk and negative triggers and defusing your eating environment one step at a time to help you begin thinking about food and eating in non-eating-disordered ways. Eventually, you'll change how you respond to and communicate with people so the eating disorder won't have to do that for you. In addition, your world view that thinness determines your personal worth will shift, and you'll rebuild self-esteem on a more secure foundation.

The Tokenism Hypothesis

Most studies using the tokenism hypothesis have examined the role of gender dissimilarity and its effects on minority members. For example, Young and James (2001) investigated the work experiences of male flight attendants, who represent token individuals in a female-dominated occupation. They found that token status led to increased role ambiguity, lower self-esteem, and perceptions of poor job fit. In turn, these negative outcomes were related to lower job satisfaction and organizational attachment. However, tokenism can apply to other demographic variables as well. Jackson, Thoits, and Taylor (1995) found that Black leaders in the United States, who were in work situations where they were outnumbered by Whites, exhibited higher levels of depression and anxiety, as compared to those in more balanced situations. Similarly, Li (1994) found that Asian minorities (tokens) in Caucasian majority groups displayed lower levels of performance and self-efficacy, relative to Asian participants...

Why Some Cultures May Discourage Creativity

Sincerity, obedience, consideration for others, and self confidence but neither nonconformity nor timidity. Using the same measure, Fryer, exploring over 1000 UK teachers' views on creativity in the mid to late 1980s, found that no single personality characteristic was selected for particular encouragement by even half her sample. The most popular were considerate and socially well-adjusted, followed by three characteristics normally associated with creativity self confident, independent in thinking, and curious. It is possible that both practical considerations and cultural factors have a role to play in coloring teachers' views. Certainly a mistrust of imagination appears to have been deeply embedded in Western culture at least until the late eighteenth century. But as reported above, with the slimming down of the UK's national curriculum, increasing autonomy for schools and a heightened interest in creativity, education for creativity is now formally required and assessed in state...

Excess Borrowed Heroics And Negative Outer Modernity

That they are worthwhile members of society. It symbolizes choice, opportunity, power, and solvency. A lack of credit has become a recently circumscribed infirmity that diminishes self-respect and fuels a sense of social abandonment. In trying to rebuild lost credit, people are aiming to restore their credibility as consumers who have at least some capability of enjoying excess, and thus of being somebody. It is therefore not surprising that economic prosperity and rising wages only serve to increase consumer debt.

Dance Creativity and Research

A topic that has received robust research is the application of imagery and mental practice to improve performance. Consistent findings suggest that elite dance artists tend to use more elaborate images to improve the quality of their performances. When images are effectively used performance improves, in particular, when motivational mastery imagery is employed self-confidence is enhanced. Cognitive-specific imagery significantly predicts the direction of somatic and cognitive anxiety symptoms. According to Eva Monsma and Lynnette Overby, motivation-specific and motivation-general imagery improves performance. They recommend that motivation-general imagery practices should be avoided when linked to cognitive arousal images but not when linked with somatic arousal imagery. Other studies suggest that more elite dancers have more frequent experiences of working with teachers who offer metaphorical images. Although it is unknown whether imagery is the major factor for improving...

Acknowledging Strengths

To be quietly aware of and appreciative of your unique strengths is not boasting. Rather it is a skill that builds inner security and quiet confidence. Are you or have you ever been reasonably clean, handy, dependable, adventurous, organized, industrious, flexible, friendly, resourceful, or persistent Are you sometimes a reasonably good socializer, listener, cook, follower, leader, supporter, worker, driver, or helper Although no one is perfect, each person has a unique combination or pattern of strengths. It is good to remind ourselves from time to time of what is presently right about ourselves. The following skill is based on the research of three Canadian psychologists, Gauthier, Pellerin, and Renaud, whose method improved the self-esteem of subjects in just a few weeks.3

Donna Chrobot Mason University of Colorado at Denver

Organizations select employees based upon applicants' knowledge, skill, and ability, so why should your group identity, such as your race, gender, or your sexuality impact how you are treated by your peers or your leaders at work There are a variety of ways in which to explain why such arbitrary characteristics and differences seem to matter in organizations. Both social identity theory and social categorization theory illustrate how group membership differences can create opportunities for discrimination. Social marking explanations of group-based discrimination in organizations aid in conveying the importance of social power in the determination of which differences matter and the consequences of those differences for the dominant group's identities and self worth. Social marking also explains how mere differences can serve as a justification for mistreatment and discrimination. Finally, we examine the relevance of privilege to discussions of group-based discrimination in...

Fallibility Antidotes

Seuss wrote a wonderful book called Oh, the Places You'll Go. It essentially says that you will go far, except when you don't, because sometimes you won't. And people will really like you, except when they don't, because sometimes they won't. There is an art to failing without allowing it to erode self-esteem. The following are some helpful principles

Resolving the Paradox of Creativity

The figure shows how apparently contradictory psychological factors are of particular importance in different phases of the process of generation of creative products. For instance, convergent thinking might dominate in the phase of Preparation, divergent thinking in that of Illumination, the personal property of modesty in the phase of Verification, self-confidence

Therapeutic Approaches

In-school programs can help prevent low self-esteem in children by building their emotional and social skills. But what about those children already suffering the negative consequences of not having positive self-esteem and emotional competence There is sufficient psychological research to positively correlate a child's educational underachievement with social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties. And the problems seem to only get worse over time. In response, a form of psychotherapy called Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) has been developed and has been shown to effectively address social and academic problems related to low emotional competence in adolescents. Using this therapeutic approach, child psychologists and counselors seek to illuminate the negative beliefs and habits of mind that often accompany poor self-esteem and unhealthy emotions. Their goal is to help the adolescents with these problems and reframe their thoughts with positive beliefs about themselves...

Physical BodyBased Approaches

Although body-based approaches are typically easy for patients and families to understand as potentially beneficial, these techniques are often difficult to implement due to pain or pain-related fears (e.g., fear of causing more pain). Some body-based approaches promote self-efficacy by increasing the child's ability to self-manage symptoms and serve to prevent further pain and disability. Body-based approaches include physical therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), acupuncture, yoga, and massage therapy. Expertise with the techniques requires training and practice with the specific type of pain being addressed. Following are brief descriptions of these somewhat overlapping interventions.

Clinical Manifestations and Diagnosis Clinical Manifestations

Depression is the most common treatable illness that may masquerade as Alzheimer-type senile dementia. Cognitive abilities return to baseline levels when depression is treated. Because some patients with early dementia have secondary depression, dementia and pseudodementia may be difficult to differentiate. The depression that occurs in the early stages of Alzheimer-type senile dementia tends to resolve as the disease progresses. Pseudodemented, depressed patients are apt to have poor attention, inconsistent cognitive changes, absence of cortical signs, weight loss, sleep disturbance, guilt, poor self-esteem, a past personal family psychiatric history, and a more rapid onset.

Etiology and Epidemiology

Research in social psychology and the field of personality has devised several psychological tests to distinguish the psychological characteristics of anorectics from others in their age group. One study has shown that whereas many of the psychological traits of anorectics and other women are indistinguishable, anorectics display a markedly higher degree of ineffectiveness and self-esteem. Other studies have proposed that anorectics have actual cognitive problems with body imaging, whereas others suggest a relationship between anorexia nervosa and sex-role socialization (Garfinkel and Garner 1982).

Multiple Measures Resources

Measures for Clinical Practice A Source Book Volumes 1 and 2, are outstanding resources for developing treatment plans. Both volumes contain specific measures that cover a wide range of issues that may arise in clinical practice. Check the table of contents for assessment tools pertinent to such problems as addiction, health, love, relationships, phobias, stress, anger, self-esteem, and sexuality. See Corcoran, K. and J. Fischer. (1994). Measures for clinical practice A sourcebook (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York Free Press and Corcoran, K. and J. Fischer. (2000). Measures for clinical practice A sourcebook (3rd ed., Vol. 2). New York Free Press. Available from

Psychological and Developmental Contributions

Perfectionism is a common characteristic of patients with anorexia nervosa (Halmi et al. 2000). These individuals tend to be school overachievers even though they are no more intelligent on average than their peers (Bryant-Waugh and Lask 1995). Unfortunately, the drive to an unattainable state of perfection may result in feelings of poor self-esteem and decreased self-efficacy (Forsberg and Lock 2006). Obsessionality, a sense of ineffectiveness, rigidity, and harm avoidance are other personality features that are common in patients with anorexia nervosa (Klump et al. 2000). In contrast, adolescents with bulimia nervosa are frequently noted to have interpersonal instability, Cluster B personality traits, and impulsiveness.

Individual Psychodynamic Therapy

Manifest ego deficits and confuse control with biological needs. Anorexia nervosa represents a disruption in normal ego development. To recover, patients must develop sufficient self-efficacy to successfully separate and individuate from their family of origin. To develop better self-efficacy, patients must first learn to identify and define their emotions, and later to tolerate negative emotions.

Costs and Benefits of Creative Activity

An individual may derive extrinsic benefits such as recognition and financial gains, and intrinsic benefits, such as satisfaction with one's work and a feeling of accomplishment. Also, creative accomplishments can open the door to further opportunities, creating a positive effect of expected future gains. However, there are also costs to creative work. First, there are pecuniary costs such as time and resources expended during the work. Though often considered under the term of constraints, time is surely the most precious of human resources. Second, there are psychic costs such as emotional wear and tear of overcoming the obstacles often encountered in creative work. The initial negative reaction that often accompanies creative work may affect one's self-confidence or task motivation. Psychic costs may furthermore include social

What It Can Do for You

Meditation can ease muscle tension, lower oxygen consumption and heart rate, and with practice, decrease blood pressure. Therefore it is often recommended for patients with hypertension or heart disease in conjunction with dietary and other positive lifestyle changes. Regular practice of meditation can enhance one's sense of control and improve self-esteem. Meditation can also produce spiritual growth, calm and serenity.

General Conclusions and Future Directions

Some time now that people possess many potential objectives when processing information (e.g., Chen & Chaiken, 1999). Although it is certainly the case that, at times, objectives such as accuracy, ingrati-ation, or self-enhancement may be predominant (Kruglanski, 1 999), it is also true that there are many instances in which several of these objectives are pursued simultaneously. What happens when people not only want to be accurate but also want to please others or boost their own self-esteem Studies addressing these questions are just beginning to appear, and early findings are indicating that important interactions can occur (Lundgren & Prislin, 1998 Nienhuis, Manstead, & Spears, 2001 Ruscher, Fiske, & Schnake, 2000).

Narcissistic Personality Disorder

This is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, lack of empathy, and hypersensitivity to others' evaluations and self-criticism. Despite outward success, self-esteem tends to be fragile and there is a need for constant admiration. Despite fantasies of beauty, brilliance, and success, genuine pleasure is rarely acceptable since these feelings of grandiosity may lead to exaggerated feelings of failure.

Attitudinal Components

The individual's attitude toward creativity is very important, especially his or her creative self-efficacy. One's belief in his or her ability to create, defined broadly, forms the psychological foundation of creative achievement. Creative self-efficacy can be fostered by providing genuine praise and feedback about a person's creativity and avoiding discouraging statements (e.g., You can't do that, you're not creative ). But some people may be challenged by competitive statements, again stressing the value of constructing enhancement efforts on a case-by-case basis. The attitudinal enhancement of creativity may also involve modeling, which can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Individuals can be exposed to information about unambiguously creative individuals, perhaps via biographies or case studies. These can provide a glimpse into the more personal aspects of creativity and provide evidence that even eminent creators are just human, like you and me. This kind of information can...

Beyond Survival Self Actualizating Creativity

SA creativity stresses first the personality rather than its achievements, considering these achievements to be epiphenomena It stresses characterological qualities liked boldness, courage, freedom, spontaneity, perspicuity, integrity, self-acceptance the expressive or Being quality rather than its problem-solving or problem-making quality. (p. 145)

Recreational Therapists

The same holds for snow skiing.177,178 Over 200 local, national and international organizations have developed rules and equipment for at least 75 sports and recreational activities that take into account a range of functional abilities.21 The United States Adaptive Recreation Center in Bear Lake, CA (www.usarc.org) is one of many services to provide information and training in sports activities. Self-esteem and problem-solving skills may grow as a disabled person learns a martial art or engages in outdoor experiential educational pursuits such as traversing a ropes course 30 feet above the ground. More research is needed to design exercise and recreational programs for younger and older people with neurologic diseases. These studies should assess both useful and possibly injurious effects. Outcome measures may include medical morbidity such as pressure sores, blood pressure, and lipid levels, endurance for instrumental ADLs, leisure-time physical activity, and...

Dimensions And Syndromes

Where anxiety is concerned, frightened and nervous apprehension is at the heart of the syndrome and constitutes its essential feature. The associated symptoms involve autonomic hyperactivity such as palpitations and cold sweats, motor tension such as trembling and muscle-twitching, and vigilance such as being keyed-up or easily startled. Where depression is concerned, the essential features involve dysphoria and anhedonia (the former referring to pervasive sadness and the latter to loss of interest and pleasure) and the associated symptoms involve disturbances of sleep, appetite, energy, and concentration as well as lack of self-esteem and thoughts about death and suicide.

Treatment for Child Victims

Efforts should be made to normalize and optimize the child's functioning as much as possible. Psychotherapy is indicated unless the victim is an infant or preverbal toddler. Victims of illness falsification may deny it have intense anger at the medical team, abuser, or other collusive family members have residual sick-role beliefs and behavior and or have posttraumatic stress disorder (especially in medical settings), self-esteem problems, difficulty defining family relationships, and immense grief (Ayoub 2006 Bools et al. 1993 Bursch 1999). The psychological impact of MBP victimization appears to be significant and chronic. Ongoing problems with social interaction, attention and concentration, oppositional disorders, patterns of reality distortion, poor self-esteem, and attachment difficulties with adults and peers are documented in the literature (Libow 1995). Although children can present as socially skilled and superficially well adjusted, they often struggle with the basic...

Social Personality and Social Cognitive Approaches

Developing in parallel with the cognitive approach, work in the social-personality approach has focused on personality variables, motivational variables, and the sociocul-tural environment as sources of creativity. Researchers such as Amabile (1983), Barron (1968, 1969), Eysenck (1993), Gough (1979), MacKinnon (1965), and others noted that certain personality traits often characterize creative people. Through correlational studies and research contrasting high and low creative samples (at both eminent and everyday levels), a large set of potentially relevant traits has been identified (Barron & Harrington, 1981 Feist, 1999). These traits include independence of judgment, self-confidence, attraction to complexity, aesthetic orientation, openness to experience, and risk taking. Proposals regarding self-actualization and creativity can also be considered within the personality tradition. According to Maslow (1968), boldness, courage, freedom, spontaneity, self-acceptance, and other...

Stereotypes and Prejudice

The above statements not only depict stereotype content, but also they can be taken to indicate that those who made them endorse the negative stereotype's content and, therefore, could be labeled as blatantly racist. Such racism clearly has declined over the course of the last quarter century, with Brief and Barsky (2000) based upon data reported by Schuman, Steeh, Bobo, and Krysan (1997) estimating that slightly more than 10 of the United States' adult, White population still openly endorse negative stereotypes of Blacks. However, the situation in organizations may be much more problematic than a 10 estimate of blatant racists might suggest. As so aptly put by Dovidio and Gaertner (1998), racial prejudice in America is a virus that has mutated. This mutated virus is a blend of early learned racial fears and stereotypes (evident as a residue of negative racial sentiments) and such treasured American values as individualism and self-reliance (reflected in deep-seated feelings of social...

Reconciling Stress and No Stress

Further, resilient children and creative children share many characteristics. Indeed, both are likely to be curious, intelligent, and fast learners. They are able to concentrate and problem solve. Both also seem to have good self-esteem, and be independent. In terms of family background, and again, consistently with creative children's profiles, resilient children are close to their parents. These parents are likely to be authoritative, and are loving, communicative, and supportive. They hold high standards, and supervise their children closely. It is important to note, however, that most childhoods marked by adversity lead to negative outcomes. For instance, poverty can prevent parents from having enough time for their children, and lack of parental involvement and support have been associated with low self-esteem and behavioral problems. Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi stated that when one has to fight to guarantee basic survival, there is no time and resources left for anything else. In...

Disability and Specific Mental Disorders

In general, disability determinations should take into account the natural course of a mental disorder, the expected effects of adequate treatment, and a realistic prognosis. Work, by and large, is healthy and restorative for most people, even those with mental disorders, and should be encouraged. Disability, in contrast, can have an eroding effect on the individual. As a consequence, opinions about disability should be judiciously considered and sparingly made. It may be that Mr. G cannot practice as a trial attorney any longer because his age and increased vulnerability to depression make placing him in a high-stress work environment undesirable. However, Mr. G's years of practice as a trial attorney were a resource for not only financial reward but also replenishment of self-esteem. Where is he to find that now if he remains totally disabled Can he find a new source for intellectual stimulation and challenge Every type of work has its drawbacks, stresses, and negative aspects, but...

Research Evidence to Date

Hundreds of publications in the medical literature support various benefits of Tai chi. Meta-analysis (statistical analysis of many related studies) have addressed the value of Tai chi on different aspects of life, psychological as well as physical function. One large systematic review and meta-analysis conducted by Tufts University and the U.S. Institute for Clinical Research and Health Policy Studies was published in 2010. It addressed the psychological effects of Tai chi from forty studies covering 3,817 subjects. Although not all studies were of high quality, Tai chi was found to reduce stress, anxiety, depression and mood disturbance, and to increase self-esteem. A similar meta-analysis from France published in 2007 looked at data from 14 studies covering 829 subjects, ages 12 to 96. That review also found that Tai chi improved overall psychological well-being and mood.

Some Flow Research Studies

Research in sport psychology has considered the relationship of flow with athletic competitive advantage, and the relevance of flow for peak performances and the final results. It has also been shown that flow influenced movement patterns by improving coordination. Recent research also considered both positive and negative consequences of flow in athletes, such as big wave surfers. Flow was associated with positive aspects such as improved mood states, performance, self-esteem, and fulfilment, but also with negative aspects, such as the symptoms of dependence on the surfing activity. Moreover, the correlation of flow with the cognitive domain and with psychological constructs has been considered, as well as the relationships between flow and dimensions of self-concept and athletes' use of psychological skills. How to generate and maintain flow, focusing on psychological processes has included the importance of confidence, precompetitive strategies, motivation, and self-concept. Some...

Session 5 Role Changes and Meaning Reconstruction

As members begin to understand the changes in functions and roles as a result of their loss, they are cautioned not to perform all the roles alone. However, they are also cautioned not to realign too quickly. Identities are established over time through the feedback that significant others give regarding roles, strengths, and weaknesses. To reinvest or realign too quickly often negates the opportunity for new aspects of an identity to emerge. Quick replacement is an attractive possibility because it can provide the opportunity to keep busy and avoid the necessary grief work. The ability to learn new skills and to take on new roles allows the bereaved to build self-confidence and regain a sense of personal control

Domain Basis for Friendships

Friendships among creative children are important for development of self-esteem and for intimacy, particularly as students become teenagers. To share passions with like minds is important for well-being, as well as for generation of ideas, testing novel ideas, and growing cognitively and creatively. However, such friendships may be fraught with problems. Creative young people have the need to be valued and to share their interests with others. At the same time, there is a need to have time and space alone to focus on their own work. There is also the competition for the same scholarships or awards, for accomplishment, and the need to be 'the best,' especially among young performers. Such conflicts may lead creative young people to eschew one aspect for the other. How to find a balance that is both personally satisfying and allows for the freedom to create is a challenge.

Benefits and Problems in Friendships of Creators

Friends benefit creators not only in sharing new ideas and stretching cognitive growth, but also in validating and sustaining them on a personal level, helping them to overcome self-doubt, a characteristic that creative personality researcher Frank Barron found characterizes creative individuals, expressed as concern about personal adequacy and motivation to prove oneself. Friendship can provide emotional strengthening and a sense of confidence, enhancing the creator's self-esteem. Difficulties also arise, including conflicts and power issues.

Gandhis Creative Vision

This embodied a sharp criticism of Western materialistic preoccupations and the encouragement of fierce competition to fulfill those needs. The man versus machine controversy, identifying industrialization with materialism, was what troubled Gandhi most. For him machinery the chief symbol of modern civilization represented a great sin. The alternative vision he cherished, for the ideal economic independence of the villages, was where the individual, not economic productivity, would be the prime concern. For him, economics and self-reliance were essential to lead a winning campaign. Instead of the 'aberrant' mechanized modern civilization of the West, he promoted the ideal of simplicity and innocence rooted in the ancient or traditional village where every member selflessly cares for others.

Conceptual Models and Treatment Approaches

Lant 1994 Pollin and Kanaan 1995) offers a pragmatic crisis-oriented approach that has been adapted to working with medically traumatized children (Bronfman et al. 1998) as well as patients and families in the critical care setting (Meyer et al. 1996 Williams and Koocher 1999). MCC is based on the premise that traditional models of psychotherapy do not fully meet the emotional needs of individuals caught up in the maelstrom of a medical crisis (Koocher and Pollin 1994, p. 292). The MCC approach focuses on the disruption of normal life tasks that is spawned by medical crisis. The model emphasizes the degree to which accompanying emotional distress is a normal, expected, and even somewhat predictable response rather than reflective of a pathological process. MCC addresses eight common fears associated with chronic illness loss of control, loss of self-image, dependency, stigma, isolation, abandonment, expression of anger, and death (Pollin and Golant 1994). Clinicians using MCC-based...

Phenomenology and nosology of secondary affective disorders

Disease-based rather than the result of emotional factors such as depression (p. 119). Bieliauskas adds, however, that compromise in cognitive function may occur in cases in which a psychiatric history of primary depression together with a sufficient loss of self-esteem co-occur.

Lesion location and mechanism of secondary affective disorders

If the depression noted following TBI was significantly determined by the neuro-anatomical effects of the brain injury as opposed to the sociocultural and clinical phenomena arising as a result of the injury (such as loss of self-esteem, pain, psychological reactions, etc.), then it would be anticipated that there would be a distinct pattern of impairment seen in depression in association with brain injury as opposed to depression independent of the injury. There would also be expected to be a strong association of clinical symptom with lesion site (Fleminger et al., 2003) as well as the demonstration of the biologic gradient (i.e., one would expect to see an increased risk of the affective disorders with increased severity of TBI).

Nonpharmacologic Therapy

Nondrug therapy consists of a three-pronged approach of education, lifestyle modification, and physical therapy. Educational programs include a set of systematic educational activities designed to improve health behaviors and health status, thereby slowing OA progression. The goal is to increase patient knowledge and self-confidence in adjusting daily activities in the face of evolving symptoms. Effective programs produce positive behavioral changes, decreased pain and disability, and improved functioning. In addition to physical outcomes, psychological outcomes such as depression, self-efficacy, and life satisfaction are positively influenced. Patients can

Knowledge Processes and Strategies

As suggested by our foregoing observations, it appears that application of many of the strategies involved in creative problem solving is, in fact, demanding. The demands made by strategy application, in turn, imply that attributes of the person, for example need for cognition, openness, and the value placed on novelty, which leads people to invest cognitive resources in strategy execution, might contribute to creative problem solving. In a recent study along these lines, researchers examined the effectiveness of peoples' application of forecasting strategies. The researchers manipulated motivation by inducing feelings of high versus low self-efficacy and high versus low implementation intentions. They found that self-efficacy and implementation interventions contributed to the production of more effective forecasts. Thus motivation may influence strategy execution.

Impact of Breast Disease on the Patient

After a mastectomy, the patient will probably suffer from depression and low self-esteem. The patient should be supported, and counseled if necessary. Open communication and sharing of feelings among the patient, husband, significant other, physician, and family are important factors in the psychologic rehabilitation of the woman. Most commonly, women with invasive breast cancer and axillary lymph node involvement require chemotherapy for periods up to 6 or 7 months after mastectomy. Many of the agents used to treat the patient have significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and alopecia. There are medicines available to help control the nausea and vomiting, but the alopecia presents another special problem. Although the woman recognizes that she will lose her hair and knows that it will grow back, she suffers further from low self-esteem. In our society, hair is a

Sense of Humor and Creative Personality

The entire field than any of the other 'Four Ps' of creativity (the others are process, product, and ' press' or environment). Some examples of the many traits said to be typical of the creative person are originality, openness to experience, tolerance for ambiguity, self-confidence, unconventionality, and independence. Not surprisingly, many of the same characteristics are often linked to a person with a good sense of humor. Some researchers have found that extraversion, or the extent to which a person is socially outgoing, is correlated with self-reported sense of humor however, the research evidence is somewhat mixed. The personality trait of psychoticism (being impulsive, aggressive, and insensitive to others) has been more consistently linked to sense of humor.

Additional Resources

The objective of coping skills training is to enhance and develop clients' internal locus of control. When clients achieve this control, they will possess the requisite skills to take charge of the emotions that influence positive behavioral choices. Clients learn that they can alter their unwanted moods and increase their self-confidence more by taking constructive actions than by using psy-choactive drugs (Kern & Lenon, 1994).

Individual Level Antecedents

This research suggests that prejudiced heterosexuals can make work life difficult to intolerable for lesbian and gay colleagues. At best, gay and lesbian workers are avoided at worst, they face overt job discrimination or even physical assault. To date, very few studies have directly investigated the effects of workplace heterosexist behaviors on lesbians and gays, but the existing research provides some insight. First, heterosexism thwarts career progression for many lesbians and gay men (Friskopp & Silverstein, 1996). For example, one study found that lesbians limited their job and career choices to avoid heterosexist work environments (Fassinger, 1996). Gay male workers have been found to earn significantly less compensation than their heterosexual counterparts, although this finding was not replicated for lesbians (Badgett, 1995, 2001 Black, Makar, Sanders, & Taylor, 2003 Clain & Leppel, 2001). Other studies confirm that heterosexism has a negative effect on lesbians' and gays'...

Expressive Therapies Art and Movement

Art and movement therapies are considered expressive because they help you explore how and why you use your body to communicate inner issues. Expressive techniques are also excellent tools to break through barriers to physical self-acceptance and help overcome body image distortion and body hatred.

Individual core characteristics and innovation

People with certain personality types have also been found to be more innovative. Those with a more creative personality tend to be more innovative as well. Characteristics that predispose one to innovation include openness to new ideas, perseverance, self-confidence, tolerance of ambiguity, independence, and originality. There are also personality traits that reduce a person's propensity for innovation. These include authoritarianism and being rules oriented. Personality, like cognitive ability, is thought to be a relatively stable aspect of a person, and thus not very amenable to alteration. While there are ways to improve both aspects, intervention techniques are usually aimed at other individual level characteristics.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapies to Enhance Coping Skills

Based on results from randomized, controlled studies, Gil and colleagues reported that a one-session group coping skills intervention was associated with decreased negative thinking, lower levels of pain during laboratory-based pain stimulation (Gil et al. 1997b), and lasting reduction of pain and health care utilization in a subset of the children who actively practiced coping skills following the intervention (Gil et al. 2001) CBT was not associated, however, with decreased SCD-related pain in the children who did not report ongoing skills practice (Gil et al. 1996). Thomas et al. (1998) also showed some benefits of CBT, documenting that children who received the treatment showed increased positive coping and self-efficacy regarding their ability to manage their pain however, the authors reported only weak evidence related to benefits of CBT for other psychological outcomes, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety

Antisocial Impulsive And Borderlinenarcissistic Trends

A similar picture has emerged in relation to borderline personality disorder (BPD), which some scholars believe is simply a more disorganized manifestation of NPD. Research indicates that BPD is far more common in modern, as compared to traditional, societies and also that it is increasing within Western cultural settings.46 BPD is defined officially as a pervasive pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotion that is associated with high levels of impulsivity. It is this impulsivity that represents the core element of BPD.

Discovery and Early Developments

Finally, it seems worth noting that the discovery of transference is a rather astonishing victory over personal narcissism. To come to the conclusion that a person who makes an intense declaration of love to you does not really love you but loves .son eone else in an act of transference takes considerable self-esteem and reflectivity. To the physician it represents an invaluable explanation and a useful warning against any tendency to counter-transference that may be lurking in his or her own mind.

Antecedents of Adult Creativity

Longitudinal studies of creative individuals have investigated the connections between mature creative production and a range of pre-adult measures of personality, family experiences, interests, and motivation. Most find connections between adult creative productivity and earlier evidence of openness, complexity, autonomy, unconventionality, and originality. Vitality is another commonly studied individual trait found to predict creative accomplishment among adults. The domain in which creativity is expressed makes a difference connections between early personality traits and adult outcomes vary for scientists, artists, and other types of creative achievers. Most research using personality draws from standard psychological tests such as the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) or the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). An emerging approach is the use of the Five-Factor personality inventory, with particular emphasis on the personality cluster of openness to...

Child Sexual Abuse And Multicultural Considerations

Considerable research reveals gender-related differences among child sexual abuse victims. For example, the literature suggests that sexual abuse is more prevalent amongst girls1,17,18 and that girls are more likely than boys to have their abuse substantiated by Child Protective Services.19 However, boys are believed to be equally at risk for sexual victimization 20 but are more hesitant and less likely to disclose than girls.20-22 The stigma against homosexuality,19,20,14 being labeled helpless,20 loss of self-esteem,14 and fear of violence retaliation19,14 make boys less likely to report the abuse than girls. Additionally, a sexually abused boy may have been warned that he will be responsible for any bad things that happen to his family if he discloses the abuse.20 Sexually abused girls that are pressured into silence may share this concern. Other gender differences include (a) boys who are sexually abused often come from single-parent homes than do girls20and (b) a boy is...

Theoretical Origins of Sociological Stress Research

With respect to the latter, stress research illustrates the relevance of self-constructs as mediators in the association between stressful experiences and mental health (Pearlin et al., 1981 Williams & Williams-Morris, 2000), and the importance of identity to definitions and responses to stress (Thoits, 1992, 1995 Burke, 1991). In their early analysis of the stress process, Pearlin and colleagues (1981) demonstrated that stressors have implications for mental health, in part, because they are associated with declines in self-esteem and mastery. Similarly, Williams and Williams-Morris's (2000) review highlighted the centrality of internalized racism to the processes through which racism affects mental health (see also Brown, Sellers, & Gomez, 2002). Thoits (1992) and Burke (1991) applied different versions of identity theory to the stress process but came to similar predictions stressors that challenge valued identities have the most profound implications for distress. Research on self...

Prophesying Creativity

Farmer tested the role the Pygmalion effect has on employee creativity in organizations. Supervisors who have high expectations about employee creativity were perceived by employees as supportive of creativity. The correlation between supervisor and employee expectations for employees' creative performance was moderate and significant. According to this study, expectations manifest their influence through intermediate steps like motivational effects and self-efficacy. Employees' self-efficacy on creativity mediated the Pygmalion effects (supervisors' expectations). This means employees who were seen as highly creative by their supervisors and reported about themselves that they had a strong creative capacity demonstrated more creativity in their works. This finding confirms the proposition that the expectations of others are communicated to them.

Theories of attachment

The adult caregiver is genetically programmed to form an attachment with the infant in order to protect it. Attachment gives the child the opportunity to be around adults and therefore provides a safe base from which the infant can explore the world. The attachment develops between the infant and caregiver because the infant displays 'social releasers' - these are behaviours that elicit produce a reaction from the caregiver, and include crying, smiling, etc. Attachment is a biological (innate) process and there is a critical period of development. This means that if the attachment is not formed within the first 2.5 years it will not occur at all. A 'monotrophic bond' is formed - that is a special bond with just one other person. The mother is therefore unique. Bowlby believes that if this bond is not formed, or is broken, then there will be permanent emotional damage because children only develop socially and emotionally when an attachment provides them with feelings of security. High...

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Stimulant medications are usually well tolerated. The most common side effects include impaired sleep, poor appetite, headaches, or irritability. Although several preliminary animal studies of these medications suggest the possibility of neurotoxic effects (Moll et al., 2001) or potential longer-term behavioral effects (Nocjar and Panksepp, 2002 Panksepp et al., 2002), long-term neuroimaging studies of children with ADHD have thus far not provided evidence of anatomical changes associated with chronic stimulant use (Castellanos and Tannock 2002). Moreover, behavioral studies in humans suggest that psychostimulants may reduce the long-term risks of substance abuse associated with the presence of ADHD earlier in life (Biederman et al., 1999 Barkley et al., 2003 Wilens et al., 2003). Stimulants also seem to improve peer, parent, and teacher ratings of the child's social skills (Group, 1999a, b). These longer-term benefits of stimulant medications for children with ADHD would seem likely...

Other Mental Disorders

Possible associations between the norm-breaking behavior of people who could be diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder and creativity have been mentioned above there is conceptual overlap between a norm-breaking lifestyle, genre-busting creativity, unconventional and ground-breaking artistic products. There have also been associations suggested with narcissistic personality disorder, with the argument that to feel one's creative work is valuable and worth showing to the wider world it is necessary to have at least some narcissistic characteristics, such as belief in one's own worth, grandiosity, and

Manic cognition and speech

While much of the earlier work on creativity and madness focused on the disordered and sometimes psychotic cognitions of schizophrenia and their similarity in form (although perhaps lower quality) in relation to novel, productive, and creative ideas, there is now much more known about cognition in the mood disorders. Manic and hypomanic thinking generally involve interpersonal engagement with another person or audience, self-confidence, free flowing if not agitated sequences of ideas, and pressured and rapid thought and speech. One approach to distinguishing schizophrenic and manic or hypo-manic cognition and language looks at measurements of formal thought disorder based on cognitive tests, ratings of language behavior in interviews and other procedures, and especially at verbalizations during the Rorschach inkblot procedure. Earlier research suggested that high levels of the thought disordered type of 'deviant verbalization' described by David Rapaport are specific to schizophrenia...

Psychosocial and Emotional Complications

Furthermore, the degree of internalizing disorder has been shown to be associated with degree of disease activity (Klinnert et al. 2000 MacLean et al. 1992 McQuaid et al. 2001 Wamboldt et al. 1998 Waxmonsky et al. 2006). Severe disease likely contributes to emotional compromise, but compelling evidence also indicates that chronic stress and distress contribute to disease activity (Sandberg et al. 2000, 2004). Asthma also can impair developmental processes, including development of autonomy, individuation from parents, socialization outside the family, establishment of peer relationships, and development of a positive self-image. Academic achievement can be severely impaired by absences from school. The compromise in these domains likely is affected by the degree of disease severity, with those children who have the most severe and persistent symptoms suffering the most (Fritz and McQuaid 2000).

Use the board or Exhibit 13 to demonstrate the following example listing items in the costbenefit columns

This can lead to feelings of guilt and low self-worth. Sometimes other people gradually begin to expect less of the person who is depressed. They may express that he or she has hurt or angered them. Often there are also material bad effects, such as loss of work time and income. Although

Psychosocial Adjustment

Understanding issues that can arise during various stages of psychological development can enhance therapeutic interventions. For example, with newborn screening and early diagnosis, a child and family need to learn early to cope with the illness related symptoms and complex, time-consuming treatment regimens. Discovering a sense of difference was a central phenomenon described in one study of children with cystic fibrosis during middle childhood years (D'Auria et al. 1997). In adolescents, delayed physical development due to cystic fibrosis may lead to poor body image, low self-esteem, and isolation. They may experience their physical symptoms as being intrusive and having negative impacts on peer activities. In young adulthood, long-term relationships are burdened with fears about prognosis and fear of rejection if the patient becomes ill.

Personality Traits of Highly Creative Individuals

Most current theories of creativity include personality traits related to openness as well as traits related to persistence. For example, both categories of traits appear in Teresa Amabile's componential theory of creativity, within the 'creativity-relevant processes' component. The first category includes spontaneity and tolerance for ambiguity, leading a person to take in and produce a wide variety of perceptions and ideas. The second category includes a high degree of self discipline in matters concerning work an ability to delay gratification perseverance in the face of frustration independence of judgment a high degree of autonomy an internal locus of control a willingness to take risks and a high degree of self-initiated striving for excellence. Taken together, these two types of traits allow a person to both generate and follow through with creative ideas. Robert Sternberg's investment theory also names personality as an important component necessary for creativity. The...

Emotion as Energizing Creative Passion

Creativity might also support mental health by promoting feelings of self-worth and competence. A great deal of self-esteem can come from creative accomplishment. Those suffering from affective disorders, or any form of mental illness, may have a fragile sense of worth. A deep involvement in creative work may allow them to channel their anxieties into a valuable pursuit. The work itself may represent a part of the self that is valued and under the individual's control. The recognition that comes when the work is complete can be self-affirming. Of course, the criticism and failure that are also an inevitable part of efforts toward creativity may have the opposite effect. When creative work is progressing well, it may be wonderfully supportive. In times of difficulty, individuals may seek therapy as a way of coping with their symptoms. Uniting work suggesting that creativity emerges from psychological problems with work showing that creativity emerges from psychological strength,...

Beliefs on Which It Is Based

Projects and activities of this kind are believed to foster physical, mental, and spiritual healing, and to contribute to the well-being not only of patients but their caregivers and families as well. They are thought to enhance self-awareness, self-esteem, and creative energy and to improve mood and reduce feelings of distress, loneliness, and anxiety.

The Social Construction of Deviance Labeling Theory and Stigma

A number of individuals saw Gove as misinterpreting their research (Mechanic, 1971) or misunderstanding the theory itself (Scheff, 1974). As Link and Phelan (1999) point out, stigma was a central point of disagreement in these debates. Those opposing labeling theory argued that stigma was relatively inconsequential (1999, p. 483), while others continued to find negative attitudinal responses to mental illness and effects on unemployment. In the end, Link and his colleagues (1989) offered modified labeling theory (MLT) that argued that while labeling does not always produce an acceptance of the diagnosis and automaton-like behavior in line with cultural stereotypes, it certainly has important consequences, including stigma (see also Pescosolido, McLeod, & Alegria, 2000, pp. 418-420). According to MLT, cultural stereotypes of mental illness create powerful expectations of devaluation and discrimination in people with mental illness, and these...

Instructional Grouping and Childrens Needs

Raised the most concern is ability-grouped class assignment, in which pupils are assigned to self-contained classes based on homogeneity of ability. Research suggests that assignment to self-contained classes based on ability level does not improve school achievement and may result in lowered self-esteem and educational aspirations for students placed in the lower tracks (Ross & Harrison, 1997). School psychologists are encouraged to be knowledgeable of the literature on classroom grouping and to promote alternatives that are in the best interests of all children (Dawson, 1995 Ross & Harrison, 1997).