The research reviewed in this chapter has taken us well beyond considerations of relative testes size in human beings and in other mammals. We have seen that sperm morphology as well as the structures and functions of the vasa deferentia, the accessory reproductive glands, and penis have all been influenced by sexual selection and sperm competition in mammals. However, in each case, the development of specializations for sperm competition are lacking in the human male. Thus, it is highly unlikely that Homo sapiens is descended directly from an ancestor which had a multi-male/multi-female mating system. Descent from a polygynous or monogamous precursor is much more likely. If indeed the earliest hominids were sexually dimorphic in body size, as many anthropologists suggest, then whichever form gave rise to H. sapiens is more likely to have exhibited such dimorphism within a polygynous rather than within a multi-male/ multi-female mating system.

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