L T I

PRE-ADX

POST-ADX

T

T

T

t

T

T

PRE-E2 POST-E

Figure 6.8 Effects of adrenalectomy (ADX), deoxycorticosterone replacement (DC), and oestradiol 17p (E2) upon sexual behaviour in ovariectomized common marmosets (Callithrixjacchus). Females remain proceptive and continue to initiate copulations with their male partners after removal of the ovaries and adrenal glands. Nonetheless, proceptivity increases after oestradiol treatment, indicating that central mechanisms underlying female sexual behaviour are sensitive to (but not dependent upon) oestrogen. Source: From Dixson (1998a); after Dixson (1987c).

Figure 6.9 Phylogenetic relationships between the six extant primate superfamilies, and the presence or absence of oestrus in females. In the three prosimian superfamilies (1. = Lemuroidea; 2. = Lorisoidea; 3. = Tarsioidea) females exhibit rigid control of female receptivity during a peri-ovulatory oestrus. Among the anthropoids (4. = Ceboidea; 5. = Cercopithecoidea; 6. = Hominoidea) ovarian hormones have much less rigid effects upon the central mechanisms underlying female sexual behaviour. Thus 'loss of oestrus' is most likely to represent an ancient trait among anthropoids, originating among their common ancestors, as indicated by the thick, black branches of the anthropoid phylogeny. Source: The phylogenetic tree is from Dixson (1998a); after Martin (1990).

Aye-aye

Dwarf lemurs True lemurs

Indri

Galagos

Lorisines

Tarsiers

Marmosets Tamarins

Goeldi's monkeys Cebid monkeys

Cercopithecoid monkeys

Gibbons Great apes

Figure 6.9 Phylogenetic relationships between the six extant primate superfamilies, and the presence or absence of oestrus in females. In the three prosimian superfamilies (1. = Lemuroidea; 2. = Lorisoidea; 3. = Tarsioidea) females exhibit rigid control of female receptivity during a peri-ovulatory oestrus. Among the anthropoids (4. = Ceboidea; 5. = Cercopithecoidea; 6. = Hominoidea) ovarian hormones have much less rigid effects upon the central mechanisms underlying female sexual behaviour. Thus 'loss of oestrus' is most likely to represent an ancient trait among anthropoids, originating among their common ancestors, as indicated by the thick, black branches of the anthropoid phylogeny. Source: The phylogenetic tree is from Dixson (1998a); after Martin (1990).

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