Exposure Therapy

Exposure therapy addresses the heart of PTSD symptoms by going directly to the trauma memory with the guidance of a therapist. In exposure therapy, the client revisits the memory of the trauma in her mind, describing the event repeatedly in the therapist's office. The goal of exposure therapy is to help the woman experience and process emotions that occurred during the trauma but were not allowed out because of the danger of the situation. Many therapies help manage specific PTSD symptoms, such...

Spirituality Religion as a Healing Pathway for Survivors of Sexual Violence

Sannisha Dale and Jessica Henderson Daniel Many survivors of sexual violence face a journey of negative psychological consequences.1 However, depending on factors existing before, during, and after the trauma, many survivors experience healing. Two factors that have provided a pathway to healing for some survivors of sexual violence are spirituality and religion. This chapter discusses the role of spirituality and religion in the healing process. Definitions for spirituality and religion and...

Effects Of Child Sexual Abuse Across The Life Span

Although many mental health concerns may result from experience(s) of child sexual abuse, particular diagnoses may be relevant to those seeking to understand child sexual abuse and work with survivors. Depression and anxiety disorders may be common experiences for survivors of child sexual abuse.46 Because many survivors of child sexual abuse experience disruption in their ability to regulate their affect,47 many are at risk for developing substance abuse or substance dependence disorders.48 In...

Causes And Outcomes Of Sexual Harassment

The Integrated Process Model of Sexual Harassment in Organizations by Fitzgerald and colleagues12,14 outlines how workplace sexual harassment is related to an organization's climate and job-gender context and then harms an employee's work, psychological, and physical health (see figure 1). In this model, organizational climate refers to the organization's tolerance of sexual harassment (e.g., harassment is modeled by superiors, harassers are not reprimanded). The job-gender context refers to a...

Leanne R Brecklin

Between 13 and 20 of adult women experience rape in their lifetime, according to data from both community and college student samples.1,2,3,4 Rape has been linked with several negative consequences including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, fear, suicidal ideation, alcohol substance abuse, poorer physical health, lower self-esteem, and sexual dysfunction.5,6 Efforts to reduce these negative effects and prevent repeat sexual victimization need to be made a priority,...

Pratyusha Tummala Narra

The long-term implications for sexual assault, such as risk of anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, eating disorders, substance abuse, and sexual dysfunction, have been documented by researchers and clinicians working with survivors.1,2,3 The internal life of survivors is often marked with feelings of shame, self-blame, and powerlessness, all of which contribute to challenges in self-care and establishing safe and fulfilling relationships.2 Sexual violence further involves stress that is...

References

Farley, M., Cotton, A., Lynne, J., Zumbeck, S., Spiwak, F., Reyes, M.E., Alvarez, D., & Sezgin, U. (2003). Prostitution and trafficking in 9 countries Update on violence and posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Trauma Practice 2(3 4), 33-74. 2. Hopper, E., & Hidalgo, J. (2006). Invisible chains Psychological coercion of human trafficking victims. Intercultural Human Rights Review, 1, 185-209. 3. Stark, C., & Hodgson, C. (2003). Sister oppressions A comparison of wife beating and...

Joanne L Davis Heidi S Resnick and Rachael M Swopes

According to a national survey, approximately 18 of American women will experience an attempted or completed rape in their lifetime.1 The course of recovery following a sexual assault may vary across individuals as a function of different factors including individual, event-related variables, pre- and postassault stressors, social support, and prior learning history.2 Some people may experience few symptoms until days, weeks, or months after the assault. Some people may naturally heal from a...

Tamara G J Leech and Marci Littlefield

Social support plays a central role in breaking the connection between sexual abuse and trauma symptoms. To illustrate this role, various scholars have argued that the existence and severity of negative outcomes among abuse survivors result from two different webs of events. The first web is concerned with the stressors among survivors, where the severity, frequency, duration, and timing of sexual abuse determine the intensity of the resultant psychological and social stress.1-3 The second, and...

Cognitive Restructuring

Cognitive restructuring is a therapy that focuses on restructuring or changing negative thoughts to improve problem emotions. Very simply, the theory is that thoughts also called cognitions create emotions or feelings. For example, the thought I'm a loser will create feelings of sadness or depression. The thought I'm a success will create happy, positive feelings. Cognitions are thoughts, beliefs, ideas, attitudes, values, and even the stream of thoughts that run in our heads continuously....

Info

Writing Your Way to Peace and Power Empowerment Journaling as a Pathway to Healing and Growth Release your pain. Express yourself. Free your mind. Find your voice. Speak your truth. Connect to your spirit. Tell your story. Process your experiences. Gain understanding. Make your action plan. Focus your energies. Bear witness to your own transformation. Let your creativity break through. These are pathways to healing, empowerment, and transformative growth that I have observed among men and women...

Conclusion

Provided the greater levels of violence, sexual acts, and poorer assault aftermath that are markers of multiple perpetrator sexual assaults, more resources are needed to improve treatment and support to the victims. Research findings documenting victim's experiences with support systems following multiple perpetrator sexual assaults suggest targeting interventions toward police, medical, and mental health sources for this high-risk group of victims. Implications of these findings should be used...

Patricia L Gerbarg and Richard P Brown

Nowhere is the link between mind and body more evident than in the experience of abuse. This connection gives us a unique opportunity to employ body-centered methods to heal emotional scars. While talk-based and cognitive therapies can be of great benefit, there are situations in which mind-body approaches, such as yoga, qigong, tai chi, breathing practices, and meditation can be extremely beneficial and sometimes necessary for full recovery. Victims of abuse, especially children, are often...

Carolyn Zerbe Enns

Feminist therapy is an approach to recovery that emphasizes an egalitarian counseling relationship, goals that are consistent with achieving equality in the full range of human relationships, and a perspective that explores the sociocultural, ecological context in which life issues are experienced. Feminist counseling highlights the personal as political, which means that personal issues are seen as connected to the social structure in which we live and have implications for social as well as...