Sexual Harassment And

There is a paucity of research examining the sexual harassment experiences of men; yet men experience higher rates of sexual harassment than the small body of research would suggest.6,8 Approximately 15% of men report at least one negative sexual harassment experience in the workplace.9 Similar to research on women of color, data suggests that on average, Black men experience more sexual harassment compared to White men, particularly those with lower organizational status.80 When men are harassed they are frequently targeted by other men,59 and they experience all forms of sexual harassment.6 However, research has also revealed that men frequently experience "not man enough" harassment—a type of gender harassment that targets men for failing to conform to male gender-role stereotypes—which has been associated with negative outcomes among harassed men.81 "Not man enough" harassment may include saying he is not "a real man" if he performs traditionally female activities, such as cooking dinner or missing work to care for a sick child.

Findings regarding how men interpret and appraise sexual harassment have varied, and few have included "not man enough" harassment in examining men's appraisals. When examining the three primary categories of sexual harassment (gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, sexual coercion), research suggests that sexual harassment from women is often appraised positively by men,82,83 rarely evaluated as stressful or bothersome,6,82 and associated with few changes in work or psychological outcomes, as compared to women.84 Conversely, when men and women experience harassment that is similar in severity and frequency, men show detriment in work, psychological, and health outcomes that is on par with those of women.40,41 Additional research must expand to include "not man enough" harassment, more severe forms of harassment, and same-sex harassment before strong conclusions about men's perceptions of sexual harassment can be made.

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