Most Effective Shin Splints Treatments
Shin splints is a nonspecific term used to describe shin pain in running athletes from almost any cause. Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is the most widely accepted term to describe pain along the medial border of the tibia experienced by running athletes and is considered to be the most common cause of athletic lower leg pain (Kortebein et al., 2000). The pathogenesis of MTSS is not fully understood. Some support the concept of a traction periostitis along the pos-teromedial border of the tibia at the origin of the soleus, flexor digitorum longus, and posterior tibialis muscles (Beck and Osternig, 1994 Michael and Holder, 1985). Scinti-graphic and biopsy studies, however, have not consistently shown an inflammatory process of the periosteum to support periostitis as the pathogenesis of shin pain. Others suggest that MTSS is caused by a traction fasciitis (involving the crural fascia) or possibly a bony stress reaction and precursor to stress fracture (Batt, 1995). Bone...
Shin splints is a catch phrase for pain in the medial tibial area, usually with overuse activities. Multiple causes30 have been proposed. Soft-tissue sources have been implicated, with tendonitis or periostitis due to overload or unbalanced tendon effects. These can be due to biomechanical sources, such as a foot or ankle malalignment. Poor balancing of the gastrocsoleus posteriorly, the posterior tibialis medially, the anterior tibialis anteriorly, or the peroneals laterally may cause symptoms. The most commonly accepted source of shin splints is a periosteal reaction due to stressing of the insertional fascial areas from the gas-trocsoleus or posterior tibialis. Tenderness is elicited by palpation of a length of the involved tibia. Careful evaluation11 of shoes, feet, ankle, tendons, lower extremity alignment, and gait as well as training history should allow changes that will bring symptomatic relief. Orthotics may help with hyperprona-tion. Rest until symptoms resolve, followed by...
Co-ordination and muscle strength and should be prescribed to already fit individuals, for example soccer or rugby players, but cannot be recommended for those with poor balance and co-ordination. For example, for those with shin splints or who are recovering from knee surgery, as an alternative to bicycling and running, roller-skating is very efficient endurance training to develop quadriceps muscle strength. For ice-hockey players, roller-skating is a natural way of exercising during pre-season training. Both skateboarding and wind-surfing are excellent balance exercises for different seasons for injured martial arts athletes and gymnasts. All these sports should preferably be performed in controlled environments, with instructors.
With increasing training load in children and adolescents over the last decades, overuse injuries have become more and more frequent in this age group. These injuries usually present initially with pain during exercise, but may, if not treated appropriately, lead to continuous pain, loss of function and disability. During physical examination, overuse injuries present with pain which is elicited by pressure or stress applied to the body part under examination. Most injuries involve the muscle-tendon unit (e.g. tennis elbow, little league elbow, shin splints). However, other structures may also be affected. Repetitive stress to the apophyses may induce a disruption of the apophyseal structure (Osgood-Schlatter disease). Likewise, repetitive stress to bones during training may lead to stress fractures, especially in long-distance runners and gymnasts. Various bones in the foot, the tibia and lumbar vertebra (spondylolysis) are especially prone to overuse fractures. The fractures are...
On physical examination, there is typically point tenderness only at the fracture, with relatively normal surrounding soft tissues. In contrast, shin splints are tender over a larger extent of the medial tibia. Symptoms of paresthesias, weakness, or motion restriction are generally absent. Some authors describe the use of tuning forks or distant bony percussion as pain reproductive methods.
The term 'shin splints' has been used as a general name for overuse injuries of the lower leg, except stress fractures and compartmental syndrome 1,4 . The pain is induced by physical exercise and is located an-terolaterally or medially on the leg. Rather than the diffuse term shin splints, the exact diagnoses of lower leg injuries in athletes with lower leg pain should be used. These include the medial tibial syndrome, anterior, lateral and posterior compartment syndromes, fascial defects, the tennis leg, the popliteal artery entrapment syndrome and effort-induced venous thrombosis in addition to stress fractures (see Table 6.1.1, p. 536).
VThe term shin splints is often an all-inclusive term used to describe pain in the anterior compartment of the leg. Most commonly, shin splints are caused by physical activity in which the foot is lowered to the ground following heel strike (such as occurs when running and especially when running downhill). The pain is due to inflammation of the periosteum of the tibia. In more severe cases, shin splints can result in stress fractures.
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