Natural Soap-Making Workshop
Cleansing agents for the skin, and oils, soaps, unguents, and other cosmetics used to maintain a good personal appearance and skin tone. Moreover, concern for personal hygiene went far beyond the realm of attracting sexual partners or performing religious cleansing rituals. Greeks and Romans worshiped health and consequently elevated in importance to their life-style the technical knowledge they believed would promote individual health and longevity.
Patients with AD have a lowered threshold of irritant responsiveness and need to avoid irritants.10 Irritants are substances which cause direct toxic damage to the skin without preceding allergic sensitiza-tion. In addition, patients with AD have an abnormal stratum corneum, even in non-involved skin, that contributes to diffusional water loss after application of a topical irritant, confirming a functional abnormality.11 Additionally, inflammatory changes including spongio-sis, perivenular mononuclear infiltrate, and activated eosinophils can be seen after application of the irritant. Thus, non-specific triggers may contribute to chronic inflammation in AD. Common irritants include soaps, detergents, solvents, acids, alkalis, particulate dusts, and 'wet work'. Cotton gloves can be used as a barrier against irritants such as newspaper ink (Figure 13.2). These allow patients to maintain manual dexterity and are available even for young children (Figure 13.3a and 13.3b). In addition,...
What are externalbeam and conformal externalbeam radiation therapies What are the side effects of EBRT
How skin tolerates radiation depends on the dose of radiation used and the location of the skin affected. The perineum and the fold under the buttocks are very sensitive and may become red, flake, or drain fluid. To prevent further irritation, avoid applying soaps, deodorants, perfumes, powders, cosmetics, or lotions to the irritated skin. After you wash the area, gently blot it dry. Cotton underwear and loose fitting clothes can help prevent further irritation. If the irritated skin is dry, topical therapies, such as petroleum jelly (Vaseline), lanolin, zinc oxide, Desitin, Aquaphor, Procto-Foam, and corn starch, can be applied.
The spirochetes of nonvenereal syphilis, like those of yaws and syphilis, perish in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, soaps, detergents, and antiseptics, and are very sensitive to drying. T. pallidum is able to penetrate mucous membranes, but intact skin presents it with a formidable barrier. The primary lesion is often in the region of the mouth, probably the result of sharing drinking vessels or eating utensils or by direct mouth-to-mouth contact. It can also spread from direct nonsexual contact, and flies, lice, and fleas may also have a role in transmission.
(-)-b-Caryophyllene is the main sesquiterpene of hops and is being used as a cosmetic additive in soaps and fragrances (Wichtel, 2002). Storage of fresh hops under aerobic conditions leads to rapid oxidation. The main product of this reaction (-)-caryophyllene-5,6-oxide markedly affects the quality of beer. In herbal medicine, (-)-b-caryophyllene is also responsible for the mild sedative properties of hops. Furthermore, it also demonstrates cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells in vitro (Asakawa et al., 1986 DeBarber et al., 2004). The biotransformation of (-)-b-caryophyllene in rabbits yielded the main metabolite and the minor biotransformation product cayrophyllene-5,6-oxide-2,12-diol. The formation of the minor metabolites is easily explained via the diepoxide intermediate. Thus, it is suggested that regioselective hydroxylation of the epoxide occurred (Asakawa et al., 1981, 1986). Whether (-)-b-caryophyllene also shows the same metabolic pathway in human is not known yet....
No soaps or detergents with fragrances or masking fragrances should be used. Dryer sheets should not be used for the patient or other family members. Baths should be minimized and only tepid water should be used. After bathing, pat dry the skin and smear a thin film of petrolatum or vegetable shortening over the affected areas. Wearing damp pajamas after application of emollients can help. Dermatologic referral for localized disease is indicated. If a generalized exfoliative erythroderma is present, an emergency department dermatologic consultation is indicated.
In 2006, Pangea Organics, a Boulder, Colorado-based company that sells 100 organic soaps, lotions and facial care products, was reaching the four-year mark when founder and ceo Joshua Onysko approached ideo to help redefine its brand expression. As part of this project, ideo developed elements of materiality that would express the brand's connection to sustainability and organic ingredients. The design team explored the use of molded paper pulp that is more ordinarily seen as egg cartons are. The final packaging was a compostable soap box that had seeds imbedded in the material itself, so that it will grow into a new plant if it is composted in the backyard or anywhere else (3.18). This packaging served as a protective case for the soap, a point of purchase display and a platform for communication details.
In 1806, William Colgate opened his first store for soaps, candles, and laundry starch on Dutch Street in New York. In 1864, B.J. Johnson in Milwaukee started the production of soap, which came to be known as Palmolive from 1898. In 1866, Colgate launched its first perfumed soaps and perfumes. In 1873, Colgate launched toothpaste in a glass jug on the market and in the tube first in 1896. In 1926, two soap manufacturers Palmolive and Peet merged to create Palmolive-Peet, which 2 years later merged with Colgate to establish the Colgate-Palmolive-Peet company (renamed as the Colgate-Palmolive Company in 1953).
Bacterial vaginosis is caused by a shift from the normal lacto-bacilli-dominated vaginal flora to a polymicrobial flora dominated by gram-positive anaerobes. Although BV is the most common cause of vaginal discharge and foul odor, more than half of women with BV are asymptomatic (CDC, 2006). BV is associated with postoperative infection, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), premature delivery in women with certain risk factors (French et al., 2004), and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission (Oduyebo et al., 2009). Risk factors for acquisition of BV include tobacco use, intrauterine contraception (IUC) use, new male sexual partner, sex with another woman, and use of vaginal foreign bodies, perfumed soaps. or douching (Allsworth and Peipert, 2007).
Thirdhand smoke occurs when cigarette smoke reacts with nitrous acid on surfaces to form tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). Nitrous acid is a common indoor pollutant and, when combined with cigarette smoke, forms a carcinogen that becomes more potent over time. Thus, nicotine is converted to a dangerous carcinogen after it is absorbed on indoor surfaces in automobiles and furniture. This can be especially hazardous to infants and children who live close to the floor because the TSNAs are especially concentrated in dust and carpeting. Smokers believed that smoking only when others were not present (e.g., in car or home) created no risk to the nonsmoker who arrives later. In fact, the smoke clings to upholstery, cotton, and carpeting and actually builds up over time, exposing the nonsmoker to potent carcinogens. This thirdhand smoke can be especially dangerous because TSNAs cannot be simply inactivated by dry cleaning or washing with soap and water. Most soaps are alkaline and...
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