Treating Social Phobias and Social Anxiety

Shyness And Social Anxiety System

The Shyness and Social Anxiety System is just as its name says. It is an e-book wherein in-depth discussions about the symptoms, causes and treatment for shyness and social anxiety are made. It is then written for individuals whose extreme shyness or social anxiety prevent them from enjoying a full life filled with social interactions among their family, friends and acquaintances in gatherings during holidays, outings and parties. The author Sean Cooper also suffered from shyness and social anxiety disorder so much so that he tried every trick in the book yet to no avail. And then he set out to conquer his own fears by researching into the psychology, principles and practices behind these two debilitating mental health issues. More here...

Shyness And Social Anxiety System Summary


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Social Phobia Definition

The central feature of DSM-III social phobia is a persistent, irrational fear accompanied by a compelling desire to avoid situations in which a person may act in a humiliating or embarrassing way while under the scrutiny of others (APA, 1980). DSM-III-R allowed for the phobic situation to be avoided or endured with intense anxiety and added the requirement that the avoidant behavior interferes with occupational or social functioning or that there is marked distress about having the fear (APA, 1987). Common social phobias involve fears of speaking or eating in public, urinating in public lavatories, writing in front of others, or saying foolish things in social situations.

Avoidant Personality Disorder and Somatization Disorder

Patients with avoidant personality disorder suffer with feelings of inadequacy and fear of criticism. They have low self-esteem and believe that they are inept and inadequate. They believe that others are critical and disapproving until proved otherwise. Although avoidant patients crave human relationships and affection, their fear of being criticized, rejected, embarrassed, or hurt causes them to initially avoid social situations or meeting new people. Their shyness and avoidance protect them from their fears of being rejected or humiliated. In medical encounters, they often can seek psychosocial help through somatic complaints. This somatic approach of physical complaints can conceal psychological issues and makes them feel safer than revealing unconscious or unexpressed emotions. They prefer not to divulge personal aspects of themselves because this may leave them vulnerable. Their timidity, hyper-sensitivity, and cautiousness can generate feelings of frustration or annoyance in...

Social Anxiety Skills Deficit

The Shyness & Social Anxiety Workbook Proven Techniques for Overcoming Your Fears. Oakland, CA New Harbinger Publishers. Dayhoff, S. (2000). Diagonally Parked in a Parallel Universe Working Through Social Anxiety. Placitas, NM Effectiveness-Plus Publications. Rapee, R. (1999). Overcoming Shyness and Social Phobia A Step-by-Step Guide. Northvale, NJ Jason Aronson. Zimbardo, P. (1987). Shyness What It Is and What to Do About It. Reading, PA Addison-Wesley.

Social Anxiety

Up to 3 percent of children and adolescents have social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia. This cluster of fears about being negatively judged or Social anxiety often overlaps with general anxiety disorder (GAD). Generalized anxiety is believed to affect up to 6 percent of children and manifests as chronic or exaggerated worry and unjustified anticipation of disasters. GAD often includes physical symptoms such as nausea and headaches.

Social Phobias

Practically all of the drugs discussed already have a potential role in the treatment of social phobias, the avoidance of social interactions that probably arises from emotional feelings of insecurity (Pots et al., 1996). Among the first to have demonstrated efficacy were monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine (Liebowitz, 1988). SSRIs (Mancini and Ameringen, 1996 Stein et al., 1998) and BZs (Davidson et al., 1994) are also quite effective. Likewise, tricyclic drugs such as imipramine, which was initially found to be an effective antipanic agent, is also remarkably useful for

Social interactions

Aristotle, in the fourth century bc, recognized that man is by nature a social animal and laid out the principles of social interactions. The poet John Donne put it nicely No man is an island . We act out our lives on a social stage, in concert with our fellow man - and woman. Social interactions are the stuff of drama and tragedy. Halliday (1937), the father of social medicine, pointed out that is just as true of illness as of any other human behavior. Illness is very much a social phenomenon, molded by its social context. Back pain always occurs in a particular social setting, which affects its impact. Physical and psychological issues may have most influence on pain, but social issues may have even more influence on disability and sickness absence. Social interactions are two-way individual low back pain and disability may impact on other people and on society how other people react and the provisions society makes may impact on the individual's illness behavior.

Benefits to elderly people

The positive effects that pets have on human health can be applied to all age groups but perhaps the greatest benefit that companion animals bring to the elderly is their ability to help them cope with loss. Loss refers not only to the death of close relatives or friends but also to the loss of a job following retirement and the loss of children once they have left home. The bereavement of a spouse can include the loss of a confidante and possible social isolation, thus compounding the effect of prolonged stress. Investigations into the effects of bereavement on the elderly have shown that pet owners suffered significantly less depression than those without pets (Hart 1995). Job loss and the lack of having someone to nurture are factors known to cause low self-esteem and pets can play a vital role in fulfilling the need to nurture and giving reassurance of self-worth (Enders-Slegers 2000).

Developmental psychology and related disciplinestheories

Social psychology is about understanding individual behaviour in a social context. Baron, Byrne and Suls (1989) define it as 'the scientific field that seeks to understand the nature and causes of individual behaviour in social situations'. It therefore looks at human behaviour as influenced by other people and the context in which this occurs. Social psychologists deal with the factors that lead us to behave in a given way in the presence of others, and looks at the conditions under which certain behaviour actions and feelings occur. It is to do with the way these feelings, thoughts, beliefs, intentions and goals are constructed and how such psychological factors, in turn, influence our interactions with others. This developmental text looks at how our development is aided influenced by parents, peers and play, for example, and also at the development of gender.

Ultrapositivistic Psychopharmacology Era 1970present

With the recognition that one of the main targets of these agents were recently characterized dopamine systems of the brain (Arvid Carlsson, 2001, Nobel Prize in 2000), and the discovery of the various receptor molecules for dopamine transmitters, the specificity and potency of antipsychotics were honed by creative pharmacologists such as Paul Janssen in Belgium (discoverer of haloperidol, or Haldol, and also risperidone, or Risperdal). This led to our current array of atypical antipsychotics (Chapter 10), which can also alleviate some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (the anhedonic flattening of affect, the social isolation, and cognitive impairments often characterized as formal thought disorders ). These newer drugs also have the advantage of few troublesome long-term side effects such as motor dyskinesias that consistently emerged after long-term treatment with the earlier, more potent anti-dopaminergic antipsychotics. Within a few years of the discovery of...

Broader theoretical considerations of autobiographical remembering

Rice (chapter 10) reviews the role of memory perspective (i.e., field, one's original viewpoint, or observer, a third-party viewpoint) and imagery in autobiographical memory retrieval. One of the important questions that she addresses is how visual imagery, most particularly perspective-based imagery, may be a determinative factor in the autobiographical memory retrieval process. Whether visual imagery or perspective per se have a causal role or not, her review reminds us of the complexity of information contained in an autobiographical memory, and the potential complexity of the retrieval processes that need to construct and bring this information to mind. Apart from this main issue, Rice also reviews how abnormal remembering in clinical syndromes (e.g., PTSD or social phobia) appears to distort visual perspective, as individuals with certain disorders tend to recall memories surrounding their condition from a third-party viewpoint.

Neurovascular clinics

By employing a holistic approach, occupational therapists can expertly screen for the functional implications of issues frequently overlooked in minor stroke (such as those arising fromhemianopias, fatigue, anxiety depression, high-level cognitive and high-level motor impairments). Even for TIAs, occupational therapists may play an important role in regards to health promotion referring on for adaptive (compensatory functional) equipment needs and attempting to reduce social isolation, which is commonly experienced in elderly populations. This enables the occupational therapist to help the consultant signpost patients for referral to appropriate services. Clearly the cost effectiveness of occupational therapists in this emerging role has not yet been evidenced and further research is required. In the meantime, therapists are encouraged to promote the role of occupational therapy in NVCs and to liaise with consultants to establish direct or indirect methods to improve comprehensive...

The History of Socioenvironmental Studies at the NIMH

John Clausen, Melvin Kohn, Morris Rosenberg, Leonard Pearlin, Erwin Goffman Social Isolation and Schizophrenia (Kohn & Clausen, 1955), Social Class and Parental Values (Kohn, 1959), Asylums Essays on the Social Situation of the Mental Patient (Goffman, 1961), Society and the Adolescent Self Image (Rosenberg, 1965), Class and Conformity (Kohn, 1969), The Structure of Coping (Pearlin and Schooler, 1978), Work and Personality (Kohn & Schooler, 1983). All of these - I believe I can fairly say - illustrious sociologists and their seminally influential sociological works were part of the history of the LSES before the departure from the Laboratory in 1985 of Melvin Kohn, who in 1963 succeeded John Clausen to become the second chief of the LSES. After Kohn's departure a departure that cannot reasonably be described as happy the Laboratory was reduced to Section status (SSES), an organizationally significant reduction in status but one that fortunately, because of other changes in the IRP...

Social winners and losers

Apes share a common social structure. Typically, a group of about thirty is led by a dominant, alpha, male, who has the mating rights over the group's females (but only if they accept him). He is supported by his deputies but usually opposed by rivals in the same group. Alliances are demonstrated by grooming, body-language and physical proximity. There is thus a constant battle for power, with the balance being held by females and a need to make the right choices about who to support. Making the right alliances at the right time can make the difference between successful fatherhood and celibacy. This requires the ability to understand complex social interactions, to understand the intentions of others and to control the amount that others can understand one's own intentions. It seems likely this has given us the ability to see the world from someone else's viewpoint (known as having a theory of mind ) and the ability

Nonpharmacologic Therapy

Pulmonary rehabilitation results in significant and clinically meaningful improvements in dyspnea, exercise capacity, ( health status, and health care utilization.10 It should be considered for patients with COPD who have dyspnea or other respiratory symptoms, reduced exercise capacity, a restriction in activities because of their disease, or impaired health status. A comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation program should include exercise training, nutrition counseling, and education. It should cover a range of nonpulmonary problems including exercise deconditioning, relative social isolation, altered mood states (especially depression), muscle wasting, and weight loss.

Summary Heuristicsquestions For Future Research

To more fully understand the nature of conscious processes would pay enormous dividends to all areas of psychiatry, illuminating many of the still well-hidden secrets within the mind-brain realms from where emotional distress arises. Such an understanding of functional neural integration in the brain would also no doubt open many new mysteries and questions. A special focus on early neurodevelopmental processes will also have crucially important implications for psychiatry (Schore, 2001), as the affective climate of early life must have a profound effect on the developing brain, substantially increasing or reducing an epigenetic vulnerability in later life to many psychiatric conditions. There is already abundant evidence from preclinical studies that positive social interactions have robust and life-long benefits for the neuroemo-tional resilience of young animals (Meaney, 2001). Such an understanding of early neurodevelopmental processes will eventually help clarify positive and...

La jeunesse Julia The Young Julia

In New York Julia shared an apartment with friends from Smith, and was primarily supported by her parents. She took up a brief occupation as a copywriter, working in the advertising department of the well-regarded home furnishings company W&J Sloane. She stayed in this position for a few years, refining her natural talents for writing and communication. She learned to write press releases and to work with staff photographers, as well as handle public relations under the tutelage of the advertising manager. Julia's success in this position was accompanied by personal successes submitting her own written work to magazines, such as the Saturday Review of Literature. She enjoyed a rather active social life in New York, and kept up a solid network of friends. Julia was known to be quite modest and to focus on the strengths in others and downplay herself in social situations. Her friends shared Julia's enthusiasm and appetite for stimulating activity, and yet Julia was not quite satisfied....

Comorbidity The Depression Bulimia Link

More examples of comorbidity are shown in the following statistics 71 of bulimic women have some kind of anxiety disorder and of those, 59 have social phobia. About one-third have a kind of seasonal affective disorder in which eating disorder symptoms increase in severity in the winter (Pearlstein, 2002). An interesting study has shown that bulimic symptoms seem to be relieved by simple light therapy (Mark Moran, Light Therapy Lessens Bulimics' Binging and Purging, WebMD Medical News, April 6, 2001).

Psychological Consequences Of Human Trafficking And Prostitution

To witness abuses perpetrated on others. Schwartz, Williams, and Farley23 illustrate through case examples how traffickers and pimps use the same methods of mind control as those used by torturers to keep their victims under control including social isolation, sensory deprivation, deliberately induced exhaustion and physical debilitation, threats to self and family, occasional reprieves and indulgences, pimps and traffickers posturing as omnipotent, degradation, enforcing capricious rules, the deliberate creation of dissociated parts of the self who willingly prostitute, drugging and forced addiction, and forced pregnancy. Violent forms of abuse include physical and sexual abuse, often equivalent to the experiences of survivors of torture in the context of war. The Nicaraguan woman referred to earlier described how her trafficker deliberately broke one of her leg bones in order to prevent her escape. Another trafficked woman described how she was forced to service as many as...

Primary Anxiety Disorders

Several subtypes of anxiety disorders are seen in the medical setting (see Figure 7-1). We describe the following DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders (American Psychiatric Association 2000) as primary to the extent that they are not specifically a psychological or physical reaction to a physical illness or substance (see left-hand column of Figure 7-1). Separation anxiety disorder involves inappropriate and excessive anxiety concerning separation from caregivers and or home and is particularly common in younger children admitted to the hospital. Generalized anxiety disorder presents with a pattern of excessive anxiety and worry for 6 months or longer that is associated with symptoms of restlessness, fatigue, difficulty with concentration, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance and may also be heightened during the stress of an inpatient admission. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in the physically ill child may include obsessive preoccupation or fears about physical illness and or...

Neurotransmitter Correlates

Valzelli first documented that decreased turnover of the neurotransmitter serotonin (induced by either selective breeding, pharmacological manipulations, or social isolation) reliably increased aggressive behavior in mice and rats (Valzelli, 1980). The fact that early social isolation can reduce brain serotonin in animal models and that cerebrospinal serotonergic indices show only moderate heritability ( 30 percent) in humans suggests that serotonergic function responds both to genetic and environmental contingencies (Heinz et al., 2001). One indirect measure of brain serotonin function in humans involves administering a spinal tap and extracting a serotonin metabolite called 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF 5-HIAA). An initial study that reported an association between low CSF 5-HIAA and history of violent suicides (Asberg et al., 1976) was followed by a string of reported associations between low CSF 5-HIAA with other impulsive aggressive behavioral...

Modernity Consciousness And Emotion

With the loss of social modes of emotional discipline and direction, the emotionally deregulated world of the modern is one in which whim easily achieves dominance. The ongoing use of emotion as a means by which to administer one's social veneer can create undesired consequences as one's whims collide with those of others. This aspect of postemotional culture has contributed to the rising rates of psychopathology that involve interpersonal impairments due to an insufficiency of emotional regulation. Ultimately, the reliance on readily dispensable quasi emotion fails to deliver on the inescapable need for self-validation. Social anxiety is also generated as ad-libbed emotional communication renders unpredictable the impact of its action.

Studies of Cerebral Metabolism and Blood Flow in Anxiety Disorders

Relatively few imaging studies have investigated specific phobias. Most have employed PET imaging. While one study failed to demonstrate changes in rCBF (Mountz et al., 1989), results from others suggested activation of anterior-paralimbic regions (Rauch et al., 1995a) and sensory cortex (Fredrikson et al., 1995 Wik et al., 1993) corresponding to stimulus inflow associated with a symptomatic state. Although such results are consistent with a hypersensitive system for assessment of or response to specific threat-related cues, they do not provide clear anatomic substrates for the pathophysiology of specific phobia. Whereas one SPECT study of patients with social phobia and healthy control subjects found no significant between-group difference during resting conditions (Stein and Leslie, 1996), more recent cognitive activation neuroimaging studies revealed exaggerated respon-sivity of medial temporal lobe structures to human face stimuli (Birbaumer et al.,...

What Can Epidemiology Contribute to the Sociology of Mental Disorders The Focus on Proximal Determinants

Lack of access to quality health care, or physical violence (Lynch et al., 2000). Psychosocial scholars, on the other hand, stress the role of perceptions of inequality, social capital, perceptions of job stress, or social isolation (Wilkinson, 2005). Research supports both types of explanations.

Prevalence and incidence of secondary organic personality change following TBI

Blair and Cipolotti (2000) subjected JS to a number of tasks designed to specifically identify the nature of the deficits in social cognition associated with the behavioural change. These included tasks aimed at assessing reversal learning (i.e., tasks including the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT) tasks that assess the ability to recognize emotional expression and emotional responding including tasks of processing of facial expression, autonomic responses to environmentally salient visual stimuli and face processing tasks social cognition tasks including tasks of verbal comprehension, emotional attribution, theory of mind, moral conventional distinction tasks, and social situations tasks. Blair and Cipolotti (2000) observed that the consistent pattern of deficit noted in JS' case was his impairment in recognizing and responding to angry and disgusted expressions and his poor performance in tasks that assessed the ability to deal with social situations most notably, an inability to...

Imaging of Other Neurotransmitter Systems

Furmark T, Tillfors M, Marteinsdottir I, et al. (2002). Common changes in cerebral blood flow in patients with social phobia treated with citalopram or cognitive-behavioral therapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59 425-333. Schneider F, Weiss U, Kessler C, et al. (1999). Subcortical correlates of differential classical conditioning of aversive emotional reactions in social phobia. Biol Psychiatry 45 863-871. Stein MB, Leslie WD (1996). A brain single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) study of generalized social phobia. Biol Psychiatry 39 825-828. Tillfors M, Furmark T, Marteinsdottir I, et al. (2001). Cerebral blood flow in subjects with social phobia during stressful speaking tasks A PET study. Am J Psychiatry 158 1220-1226.

How Does Uncontrolled Epilepsy Affect The Patient

The ability to measure quality of life is an important step towards a more meaningful and global assessment of how epilepsy affects the individual. Comprehensive quality-of-life instruments for epilepsy are now available for researchers and clinicians.26-28 The Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventories (QOLIE) contain questions (QOLIE-10) and scales (QOLIE-89 and QOLIE-31) that examine different aspects of quality of life, including overall quality of life, health perceptions, energy and fatigue, social function, emotional well-being, cognitive function, physical function, pain, and role limitations caused by emotional, physical, or memory problems. Additional scales pertain to epilepsy seizure-specific health perceptions, seizure worry, attention and concentration, memory, language, working and driving limitations, social support, and social isolation.

The Jehovahs Witnesses Society

Jehovah's Witnesses (JW) belong to the religious organization, the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. They number an estimated 6 million world-wide, of whom 145 000 live in the UK1. In Australia, a 2001 population survey showed that the 81 000 JW represented 0.4 of the population2. JW refuse blood transfusion with the 'primary components' of blood (see below for definition) and are prepared to die rather than be transfused. Until 2000, the church would have expelled any member who had been transfused with any prohibited component of blood. Such an individual would have been ostracized and shunned by the members of the church and their family, leading to social isolation. In 2000, rejection by the church was abandoned and it was left to the individual to revoke his own membership from the Society. Although this change in policy was seen as a relaxation of the JW policy on blood transfusion, the JW Society felt that no JW would wish to dissociate them-selves3. In practical terms, this...

Clinical identification of vertebral fractures

It has been shown that both symptomatic and asymptomatic vertebral fractures are associated with increased morbidity 9 and mortality 8, 22, 35 . Morbidity associated with these fractures includes decreased physical function and social isolation, which have a significant impact on the patient's overall quality of life 16 . Still, it remains difficult to determine the exact incidence of osteoporotic vertebral fractures that occur annually, as a substantial proportion remains clinically undetected. Large-scale prospective studies demonstrate that only about one of four vertebral fractures becomes clinically recognized 7 . This is due to both the absence of specific symptoms in some and the difficulty in determining the cause of possible physi

Conclusion The Sociology of Mental Health Can And Should be More Structural

The evidence on the inverse association between measures of social stratification such as income and education and common mental disorders is well established. Yet little is known about the relation between the social processes that generate economic inequalities and mental health. Recent research points to the need for sociology of mental health to delve into the social relations that produce social inequalities in mental health, not only into the micro social processes linking social interactions to mental disease (e.g., stress, coping, support, stigma). Social mechanisms generating economic inequalities such as relations of production, property relations, or exploitation are too central to social systems to be addressed exclusively by epidemiologists. Sociological input will be ultimately essential to the advancement of our understanding of the relation between economic inequality and mental health. Greater sociological insight into research on social inequalities in mental health...

Pivotal Response Training

Pivotal response techniques include positive reinforcement, changing and correcting behaviors, and child choice (where the child expresses a preference). Because children with ASDs have communication and behavioral challenges (they may be self-absorbed or have difficulty forming reciprocal relationships), PRT focuses on teaching children how to engage in effective social interactions. Learning how to ask questions and initiate social contact not only opens the door to relationships, but also can fundamentally change how others perceive children with ASDs. PRT draws upon the natural motivations and individual interests of each child to make learning engaging and fun. This treatment provides guidelines to improve pivotal behaviors such as motivation and the ability to respond to multiple cues and stimuli. Emphasizing functional communication and skill development, PRT has been successful in helping children with ASDs expand their communication and language skills, reduce interfering and...

Monoamine Reuptake Inhibitors

Is produced rapidly in humans, with peak plasma levels of up to 3 times those of bupropion and a half-life of 24 hr. Therefore, orally administered bupropion is likely to lead to significant NE reuptake inhibition and relatively less DA reuptake inhibition. Bupropion increases locomotor activity and causes stereotyped behaviors in laboratory animals. In humans, it can cause restlessness, insomnia, anorexia, and psychosis. Bupropion is structurally related to phenylethylamines and unrelated to the TCAs, SSRIs, or MAOIs. It has no significant potency at binding to any known neurotransmitter receptors. Clinical studies have demonstrated that bupropion is effective in the treatment of major depressive episodes (Depression Guideline Panel, 1993). While early studies suggested that bupropion might be less likely to cause hypomania or mania in bipolar patients, subsequent studies suggested that it can cause mania and psychosis in bipolar patients, especially those with high pretreatment...

Minority Distinctiveness

Another possible explanation for discrimination based on or exacerbated by group composition is the subjective experience of distinctiveness that minority members may perceive in the work context. In their review of the literature, Milliken and Martins (1996) concluded that group heterogeneity, thus, may have a negative impact on individuals' feelings of satisfaction through decreasing individuals' sense of identification or social integration within the group (p. 415). Minority perceptions of distinctiveness and social isolation in the workplace was first examined by Rosabeth

Upon completion of the chapter the reader will be able to

Describe pathophysiologic findings in generalized anxiety, panic, and social anxiety disorder patients. 2. List common presenting symptoms of generalized anxiety, panic, and social anxiety disorders. 3. Identify the desired therapeutic outcomes for patients with generalized anxiety, panic, and social anxiety disorders. 5. Recommend psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy interventions for patients with generalized anxiety, panic, and social anxiety disorders.

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Venlafaxine

The efficacy of paroxetine, sertraline, and escitalopram was established in large controlled trials.60-63 SSRIs improve social anxiety and phobic avoidance and reduce overall disability. Approximately 50 of patients achieve response during acute treatment. Limited data suggest that both fluvoxamine and citalopram are effective in SAD. Fluoxetine is not effective.60,61 FIGURE 40-4. Algorithm for the pharmacotherapy of SAD. BZ, benzodiazepines SSRI, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (Adapted from Kirkwood CK, Melton ST. Anxiety disorders I. Generalized anxiety, panic and social anxiety disorders. In DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, et al., eds. Pharmacotherapy A Pathophysiologic Approach, 7th ed. New York McGraw-Hill, 2008 1163-1178.) Venlafaxine extended release, in doses of 75 to 225 mg day, improves social anxiety, performance, and avoidance behavior with a reduction in disability.64 Treatment with venlafaxine results in response rates similar to those seen with...

Social Skills Training

Social Skills Training is an umbrella term that can include social skills groups, one-on-one social skills therapy, peer modeling, and video modeling. The goal of Social Skills Training is to help children with ASDs make friends, establish relationships, and have appropriate social interactions. Social Skills Training sessions are usually run by a trained facilitator such as a psychologist, behavior therapist, speech therapist, play therapist, or special education teacher. Parents can even be taught to facilitate sessions with their children by playing fun games that promote social interactions. Social Skills Training can take place in different venues such as in a treatment session, at school, or at home. In a treatment session, a child can learn and practice social and play skills with the facilitator before transferring these skills to outside social situations. Social Skills Training can also take place in at school during recess in the forms of games and exercises. Social Skills...

Cognitive Processes Contextual and Focused Mindsets

Thus, the contemporary East-West differences on the conceptions of creativity and creative performance are real, and there is evidence to support the basis of differences in culture and cognition. However, social interactions across cultures, changing social practices, and greater exposure and experience living in the East or the West in another culture different from one's own might combine to contribute to a shift in mindsets relevant to creativity. East and West are going to meet with each moving in the direction of the other, and perhaps in the convergence, the future blended conception of creativity will contain the best of both cultures.

The Market for Creativity

At the societal (aggregate) level, there is a supply and a demand for creative activity. The supply of creativity refers to the number of novel, useful productions (ideas, inventions, artistic works, etc.) that the members of a social unit (such as an organization or a society) provide. The demand for creativity is the need or desire in a society for creative productions. This demand may vary across domains (art, science, business, etc.) and across time. For example, during periods of political instability or war there may be greater demands for technological creativity than for artistic creativity. In financially tight periods, there may be a greater market for innovations that propose less expensive alternatives than for bold, but costly new products. The demand for creativity also varies from one place to another some societies value conformity and maintenance of the status quo more than others. Sternberg and Lubart characterize environments - markets - for creativity as ranging...

Social Cultural Perspective

One persistent criticism of Piaget's four stages of cognitive development concerns its lack of attention to cultural factors in a child's life. Those that hold this view believe that culture not only affects the rate of cognitive maturation but also how and what children think. Rather than viewing cognitive growth as a self-directed process where children function almost as if they were isolated scientists, learning is seen as an outgrowth of children's social interactions.

Client Health And Stress Management

Replacing negative behaviors (e.g., poor nutrition, sleep deprivation, limited exercise, and social isolation) with positive ones (e.g., healthy diet, regular exercise, and healthy social involvements) is essential in all treatment programs. Assisting addicted clients in developing a healthy lifestyle goes a long way in controlling their impulses to take psychoactive drugs. An insomniac might consider one of these alternatives to taking sleeping aids

Research into informationprocessing biases associated with panic

Nevertheless, we should note that panic may be atypical of the anxiety disorders, in that 9 15 studies reviewed by Coles and Heimberg (2002) showed the presence of an explicit memory bias in contrast to anxiety disorders such as GAD and social phobia which may only show weak implicit memory biases (see later).

Psychoanalysis The Middle Years

It took him a while longer to recognize that in addition to each patient's transference of emotions onto him, Freud was engaging in a constant process of countertransference of his own long-established emotional patterns onto the patient. This recognition enabled Freud to overcome previously unacknowledged or uncontrolled difficulties in the therapeutic interaction. Finally in this sequence of new recognitions, Freud came to realize that transference and countertransference are not limited to the interaction of therapist and patient, but extend through all human social interactions beyond those of child and parent. With this recognition, Freud finally achieved what he regarded as a general psychology of human personality. For several years before and after his 50th birthday, Freud felt that he had become creatively exhausted and was experiencing a decline into old age. During this time he revised his ideas about sublimation to say that only students were able to make effective use of...

Changes in Mental Status

Consults are frequently initiated regarding patients' mental status changes. Fluctuations in level of consciousness and orientation, affective dysregulation, and other cognitive and perceptual disturbances have been collectively coined ICU psychosis or ICU syndrome and were once thought to be caused by environmental factors specific to critical care settings (e.g., Kleck 1984). Critical care patients' increased vulnerability to mental status changes is now recognized as likely due to a confluence of factors related to the patients' underlying illness and drugs and other treatments rather than due to an exclusively environmental etiology. Environmental factors specific to the ICU that threaten patients' mental status, in interaction with other biological factors, include prolonged social isolation, unfamiliar surroundings, sleep deprivation and diurnal rhythm disruptions, and patient immobilization (Martini 2005). Such mental status changes are conceptualized within the framework of...

Current treatments for emotional disorders in youth and adulthood

Despite this positive state of affairs in the CBT literature for emotional disorders, a number of significant caveats can be identified that might point us toward areas of potential innovation regarding treatment of the emotional disorders. Clearly, not all patients respond to cognitive-behavioral treatment, leaving room for improvement to such approaches. Since most researchers manualize their cognitive-behavioral approaches to the treatment of very specific problems or disorders, the resultant state is one in which multiple manuals, workbooks, and protocols co-exist, including many for the same disorder (Barlow, Allen, & Choate, 2004). While this state of affairs is marginally better in the child and adolescent anxiety literature, where protocols such as those by Kendall (1990) target a slightly larger breadth cluster of anxiety disorders, including GAD, Social Phobia Promising evidence for the utility of single treatment protocols for a larger array of emotional disorders can be...

Public Orientations Modern Voyeurism And Social Allergies

It might seem that, as with other-directed moral anxiety, the demise of the local other would lessen the likelihood of social fear since, in theory, people are not emotionally invested in those around them. However, the past decade has witnessed a well-documented spate of social anxiety disorders, in particular social phobia. Major drug companies have responded robustly to the social phobia boom by developing new medications to treat the estimated 12 to 15 percent of the population who will become psychologically allergic to other people. Whereas cynics have argued that the social phobia phenomenon is still another example of a manufactured commercial pathology aimed at stimulating medical consumption, it is probably better to fathom it as an additional consequence of the loss of the local social sphere. More specifically, it reflects a situation in which performance-driven actors are unable to evaluate themselves as a result of the absence of a local audience. Social anxiety...

Primary and Secondary Disorders

Given the importance of comorbidity, a question arises as to which disorders in comorbid sets have the earliest ages at onset. The results in Table 2 show that there was considerable variation across disorders in the NCS in the probability of being the first lifetime disorder. Simple phobia, social phobia, alcohol abuse, and conduct disorder were the only disorders considered in the NCS where the majority of lifetime cases were temporally primary. In general, anxiety disorders were most likely to be temporally primary, with 82.8 of NCS respondents having Social phobia

Technique with polymethylmethacrylate

More recently, prospective studies have shown similar success with PVP. The largest prospective study 43 reported on 100 patients who underwent PVP for vertebral compression fractures. At final follow-up averaging 21 months, 97 of the patients reported significant pain reduction, with the VAS improving from 8.9 to 2.0. Cortet et al. 13 added to the literature by reporting on 16 patients with 20 VCFs of more than 3 months' duration not responding to medical treatment. They all underwent PVP and showed a statistically significant improvement in VAS pain score immediately after the procedure, which remained at 30, 90, and 180 days after the procedure. Additionally, there was a significant improvement in the general health status as assessed by Nottingham Health Profile, which includes pain, mobility, emotional reaction, social isolation, and energy.

Organizational Antecedents of Heterosexism

Companies that lack protective policies and practices may foster a climate of heterosexism in the workplace (Button, 2001). For example, Ragins and Corn well (2001a) found that gay and lesbian employees were less likely to report sexual orientation discrimination in organizations that (a) had written policies forbidding it, (b) included sexual orientation discrimination in their definition of diversity, or (c) offered same-sex domestic partner benefits. In fact, although the presence of protective legislation and gay coworkers were significantly related to reduced reports of discrimination, the overriding variable affecting reported discrimination was the presence of gay-friendly organizational policies and practices. A particularly interesting finding was that of all the gay-friendly practices and policies examined, inviting same-sex partners to company social events had the strongest relationship to reduced reports of workplace discrimination. This practice reflects a...

Adolescent Adjustment

Studies have suggested that adolescents with SCD are at particular risk of having social difficulties, as reflected in the association between SCD-related pain and increased social anxiety that is not found in younger patients (Wagner et al. 2004). One study compared parent-, teacher-, and self-report findings of psychosocial functioning of children and adolescents with SCD. Results showed that adolescents with SCD experienced more difficulties in peer relationships, particularly as indicated by adolescent self-report (Rodrigue et al. 1996). These difficulties may be related to delayed puberty, increasing academic problems, and decreased participation in social activities secondary to pain crises and hospitalizations (Morgan and Jackson 1986 Wagner et al. 2004). Therefore, assessment of peer relationships is particularly important when evaluating psychosocial adjustment in adolescents with SCD (Rodrigue et al. 1996).

The Social Antecedents of Emotion

Along with their social science colleagues in anthropology, history, and psychology (e.g., Brody, 1999 Corrigan, 2002 Kleinman, 1986 Kleinman & Good, 1985 Lazarus & Folkman, 1984 Lutz, 1988 Lutz & White, 1986 McMahon, 2006 Rosaldo, 1980, 1984 Schachter & Singer, 1962 Scherer, et al., 1986 Seligman, 2004 Shields, 2002 Stearns & Stearns, 1986), emotions scholars in sociology argue that there is a strong social basis of emotion, and that social situations influence people's feelings and expressive behavior (e.g., Gordon, 1981 Hochschild, 1975, 1979,1983 Lively & Heise, 2004 Shott, 1979 Simon & Nath, 2004 Smith-Lovin, 1995 Thoits 1985, 1989). Most, if not all, sociological theories about the social antecedents of emotion assert that social situations are crucial for individuals to have an emotional experience and influence whether they experience positive or negative feelings. As a case in point, Kemper's (1978,1990) social interactional theory about emotion argues that decrements in...

Conclusions The Complementarity of the Sociologies of Mental Health Emotion

With respect to the social antecedents of emotion, sociologists of mental health have developed an elaborate typology of social situations that are responsible for the development and persistence of emotional problems among individuals in the general population. Emotions scholars should draw on this useful typology in order to assess whether everyday negative feelings can be traced to undesirable life events and on-going strains, and if so, whether these events and social situations are stressful because they decrease people's status in social relationships or disconfirm their social identities as Kemper and Heise argue, respectively. At the same time, sociologists of mental health should make greater use of these and other theories about emotion in order to elaborate the social psychological mechanisms that underlie people's emotional reactions to acute and chronic stressors. This would enhance their understanding of why these social experiences are emotionally distressing. problems...

Behavioral Definitions

Admits to constant worry about social interactions, which prevents feeling comfortable in group meetings. 5. Reports symptoms of autonomic hyperactivity in social situations (e.g., cardiac palpitations, shortness of breath, sweaty palms, dry mouth, trouble swallowing, nausea, diarrhea).

Social Psychology and Stress Research

The stress process is a microcosm of the society-individual interface, where structural and cultural constraints are manifest in human thought and action. Macro-level constraints become visible in population patterns of stress exposures as well as in the strategies that individuals use to avoid and respond to potentially stressful circumstances. Proximal social interactions that are embedded in this broader set of constraints serve as the sites at which the meanings of stressful life experiences are constructed, thereby acting as conduits for macro-level influences. The selves that engage stressful experiences participate in, and are shaped by, this process of meaning construction, closing the circle between society and individual. If we accept all this to be true, research on the stress process must invoke the full range of sociological theories regarding the nature of the society-individual interface. In turn, stress research has potential to inform the development of those theories...

The Interactional Basis of the Stress Process

Sociological stress researchers acknowledge social interactions in the stress process through analyses of social networks and social support. Social network conceptualizations emphasize the structural connections the presence or absence of links among individuals or groups (see Lin & Peek, 1999 for a review). Common network concepts such as density (the degree of overlap among the links within a given domain), reciprocity (whether exchanges occur in both directions across a link), and multiplexity (whether a given link involves an exchange of more than one function or activity) further specify the nature of the connections among groups of individuals and the possible pathways for the exchange of information and resources. Social network characteristics have inconsistent associations with mental health and are only occasionally found to buffer the effects of stressors on mental health, perhaps, as Lin and Peek (1999) speculate, because their associations with social support have not...

Relationship Between Agoraphobia and Panic

In a reanalysis of the ECA data on agoraphobia without panic (Horwath et al., 1993), 22 community cases of agoraphobia without panic were clinically reappraised and only a single case of probable agoraphobia without panic was found. The diagnostic reappraisal found that 19 (87 ) of the cases had simple or social phobias rather than agoraphobia, or had no DSM-III phobia at all. The reappraisal also identified six cases of panic disorder, panic attacks or limited symptom attacks which had been missed by the DIS interview. The authors concluded that community studies using the DIS may have overestimated the prevalence of

Social Roles in the Stress Process

Traditional conceptualizations of social roles define them as behavioral expectations that are associated with, and emerge from, identifiable positions in social structure (e.g., Merton, 1957). In this view, social roles exist prior to social interactions and serve as constraints on behavior. They are predetermined positions that we enter and exit in patterned ways over the life course (George, 1993).

Prevalence and incidence of impaired selfawareness following TBI

These researchers proposed a framework for interpreting social behavior disturbances following TBI that they drew from the schizophrenia literature (Corrigan, 1997). They contend that inadequate social behaviour could result from (1) insen-sitivity to important social cues, such as emotional expressions (2) impaired understanding of social situations and other people's intentions and (3) failures to adjust one's behaviour in accordance with social rules and demands (p. 169). They note that in their own study of this issue the problem underlying the deficits was most closely associated with impairment of the ability to understand social situations and the intentions of others, consistent with much of the literature reviewed above.

Stages of Decline with Alzheimers Disease Level

Very mild cognitive decline (forgetfulness). Subjective complaints of memory deficit, most frequently in the following areas (a) forgetting where one has placed familiar objects (b) forgetting names one formerly knew well. No objective evidence of memory deficit on clinical interview. No objective deficits in employment or social situations. Appropriate concern regarding symptoms.

Use the board or Exhibit 13 to demonstrate the following example listing items in the costbenefit columns

Avoiding usual friends and acquaintances is a of a response to being depressed. This has positive and On the plus side, people often feel they are less over- by responsibilities and feel less inferior or guilty when they are not around other people who are feeling well. Often isolation is a means to cope with irritability or anxiety in social situations. On the down side, withdraw-

Toward dsmv an empirical approach to revising and refining diagnostic criteria

Tables 12.1a-12.1c list the SWAP-200 items that received the highest scores or rankings in each composite description, along with the item's mean score or ranking in the composite (indicating its centrality or importance in defining the PD). Two findings are noteworthy. First, the descriptions differ systematically from those of the DSM-IV and include psychological features absent from the DSM criterion sets, especially items addressing inner life or intrapsychic experience. Second, there is considerable overlap in item content between the disorders. Thus, there are psychological features that are central to two or all three of the Cluster A disorders (e.g., difficulty making sense of other people's behavior, problematic reality testing, a propensity to feel misunderstood or mistreated, a tendency toward social isolation). If we consider each composite description as a whole (that is, if we consider the gist or gestalt of the 15 to 20 most descriptive statements), the descriptions are...

Research Evidence to Date

Dance therapy with the elderly was one of the earliest efforts. Problems common to the elderly typically include physical limitations, dependency on others, social isolation, loneliness, loss of self-esteem, death of peers and fear of one's own death. These problems add stress to individuals who may have few if any outlets for releasing tension.

Family and Social Functioning

An investigation of the concerns reported by parents of adolescents and young adults with heart disease identified seven areas of concern 1) the dilemmas of normality, 2) disclosure dilemmas, 3) the challenge of uncertainty, 4) illness management dilemmas and strategies, 5) social integration versus social isolation, 6) the impact of the illness on the family, and 7) coping (Sparacino et al. 1997). In a larger sample of mothers of young children with CHD, the mothers' concerns were reliably grouped into five categories 1) medical prognosis, 2) quality of life, 3) psychosocial functioning, 4) effects on the family, and 5) financial issues (Van Horn et al. 2001). These concerns, as well as maternal anxiety and depression, decreased after children were released from the hospital.

How Networks Affect Creativity

When we think about highly creative people, we may think about intriguing or even quirky aspects of their personality, and a rich body of work explores these traits. In contrast to a personality or intraindividual approach, asocial network view of creativity is more about understanding how social experiences affect cognition and knowledge in ways that facilitate or constrain creativity. This approach is consistent with contextual views of creativity, which focus on factors external to the individual. With a social network perspective, the spotlight is less on creative types and more on creativity enhancing social situations.

What It Can Do for You

The dance experience for disabled individuals helps reduce feelings of isolation, and motivates social relationships in a group setting. This is especially important for deaf and blind individuals, because they can withdraw and become socially isolated if they find communication too difficult to pursue. Physical education or physical therapy often is not available for them, and their muscular capacity may deteriorate as a result. This problem is due to the social isolation that can occur, not to any inherent physical weakness.

Comorbidity and Bipolar Disorders

Comorbidiy of anxiety disorder has also been found to be frequent in bipolar disorder. Cosoff and Hafner (1998) found, in a treatment-based study conducted in Australia, a comorbidity prevalence of 17 for social phobia, 13 for generalized anxiety disorder, 30 of obsessive - compulsive disorder, and 15 for panic disorder.

Classifying Mental Illness

Comorbidity refers to the existence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time. For example, someone who has been diagnosed with both social anxiety disorder (SAD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is said to have comorbid SAD and OCD. When a child suffers from multiple disorders, one disorder usually occurs first and dominates. For example, an anxiety disorder often precedes depression. It's also possible that long periods of anxiety and the accompanying social isolation may cause episodes of depression. In other words, being anxious can make people depressed.

The Fragmentation or Ambiguity Perspective

A central concept in understanding an organizational culture is meaningfulness. The individual development of reference frames does not take place in social isolation. Jill Perry-Smith pointed out that the creation of individual meaningful structures usually implies that the individual explores relationships with other individuals who are involved directly or indirectly in the same project. The interdependence of employees is often high in large-scale creative projects leading to development of a kind of collective reason emerging from collective interaction, as Karl Weick and Karlene Roberts showed. When people engage in interaction with others it creates an intersubjective meaning in the sense that a common understanding of the creative process emerges, according to Andrew Hargadon and Beth Bechky. Individual reference frames are thus linked together into intersubjective frameworks. When a mutual understanding emerges in this way Carl Martin Allwood and Marcus Selart argued that an...

Controlling Nervousness

Unfortunately, shyness has inhibited a number of excellent scientists and engineers from making presentations. The chemist Fritz Strassmann, for instance, allowed Otto Hahn to make the presentations of their work on nuclear fission. Interestingly, for their work, Otto Hahn (and Otto Hahn alone) won the Nobel Prize. Many believe that Strassmann should have shared in that prize.2 Moreover, many more feel that Lise Meitner, who shied away from making presentations in the early years of her career, should have shared in the award. According to Ruth Sime, Meitner initiated the experiment, and with Otto Frisch explained the fission process. 3 At the time of the discovery, Meitner, who was of Jewish heritage, was not in Germany with Hahn and Strassmann. She had fled to Sweden to escape persecution from the Nazis.

Physiognomic and Allocentric Perception

Psychologists make use of the phenomenon of physiognomic perception in two ways. First, there are attempts to assess individual creativity by means of physiognomic perception ability. The Physiognomic Cue test consists of schematic drawings that may be interpreted in one of two ways suggested to a testee. The first interpretation is commonplace, such as 'sun,' the second is more original and 'physiognomic,' such as 'joy.' People are asked to indicate a preference for one of these two interpretations using a standard Likert scale. Second, physiognomic perception is widely used in creativity enhancement and training. Participants in such training may be asked to attribute feelings to bricks, or to imagine social interactions between pieces of furniture. Such exercises improve creative imagination and creative skills through deliberate manipulation of human perception.

Treatment Of Anxiety In Clinical Practice Symptoms of Anxiety

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Association (1994) includes eight major types of anxiety disorders, most of which have been summarized in previous chapters, including PTSD (Chapter 11), panic attacks (Chapter 12), obsessive-compulsive disorders (Chapter 13), and various acute stress reactions (Chapter 4). Here we will be primarily concerned with generalized anxiety disorders, but the coverage is also relevant for specific phobias, including social phobias and agoraphobia. The most common clinical symptom of all these disorders is excessive worry and sustained feelings of mental anguish. Among the common symptoms of generalized anxiety there are a variety of psychological disturbances, such as uncontrollable apprehensive expectations, jumpiness, and a tendency for excessive vigilance and fidgeting. The accompanying autonomic symptoms commonly include gastrointestinal irritability, diarrhea, and frequent urination, as well...

Historical Perspectives

However, during the past few decades our neurobiological appreciation of the sources of anxiety (Goddard et al., 1999), from generalized anxiety disorders (Conner and Davidson, 1998) to social phobias (Stein, 1998), has been impressive. Although vigorous new drug development has proceeded in the area, major new payoffs have been modest, except for the emerging use of antidepressants to treat anxiety (Cheetham and Heal, 2000).

The Social Context of Recollection

Whereas neural developments set the stage for the basic abilities to encode, consolidate, and retrieve personally experienced events, the social interactions in which infants and preschoolers engage modulate how these memories will be expressed, understood, and maintained. In this section, we first review basic developments in behavioral memory that occur across infancy, and then describe how emerging developments in language and self-understanding begin to coalesce through socially guided reminiscing interactions to culminate in the phenomenon of recollection.

The Development of Recollection

Evidence from both neurological developments and memory behavior as it evolves in social interaction converge on the idea that recollection is a complex process with a long developmental history. Whereas many of the requisite neural structures for recall are developed by the end of the first year, and infants are already able to recall distinctive information about specific events in an organized temporal order, developments in neural structures, language, and self-understanding continue and are modulated through parentally guided reminiscing in ways that create individual differences in children's trajectory. Parents, and especially mothers, who help their children create more elaborated personal narratives saturated with internal state language have children who come to tell autobiographical narratives that are more coherent, more detailed, and more subjective. Thus it seems that, whereas neurological developments set the stage for recollective experiences, it is through social...

Psychosocial Adjustment

Because of their depressive symptoms, youth with SLE are at particular risk for cognitive distortions that are linked to physical appearance. More importantly, there has been a line of research to suggest that physical appearance is associated with adjustment in youth with chronic physical illness (Pendley et al. 1997 E.J. Varni et al. 1995). In fact, among adolescents with rheumatological disorders, body image was found to predict both social anxiety and loneliness even when severity of illness, objective ratings of attractiveness, and self-esteem were controlled (Pendley et al. 1997). Taylor et al. (1987) reported that problems with peer relationships and self-concept were endorsed as being the most frequently school-related problem, specifically for children with rheumatological disorders including those with SLE, even when compared with health-related concerns (e.g., activities of daily living, general physical health).

The Future of Programs and Courses in Creativity

A host of complex social situations, fear of change and ambiguous situations tend to get people interested in learning about ways to overcome their problems or to find new challenges. Current times support these factors as influential. The market for creativity programs and courses seems to be expanding.

Linguistic Approaches

A third linguistics development can be found in what has been labeled 'corpus linguistics,' the study of language based on samples (or corpora) of'real world' text or speech. Typically these corpora are very large, encompass a wide range of types of texts or social situations, are computerized and can thus be used to examine any number of questions, such as the frequency with which different types of speech (e.g., irony or metaphor) are actually used in everyday communication. This development can be seen, in part, as a reaction to another distinction made by Chomsky, namely the distinction between linguistic competence and linguistic performance. The former refers to the knowledge held by an ideal set of speaker-hearers and was the database to Chomsky and many of those who followed in his linguistic footsteps. According to Chomsky one can tap for this knowledge by asking adult native speakers about their intuitions regarding presented sentences.

Review of Empirical Research Using a Functional Perspective

And to collaboratively re-evaluate the shared event (i.e., rehearsing positive social bonds). Discussing conflict topics led to different reasons for retrieval of autobiographical memories. This focused more on the fundamentals of the relationship, included using memories to explain oneself and to evaluate the other person (i.e., testing and attempting to repair or loosen social bonds). Thus, the conversational context influences the functions of autobiographical memory retrieval in social interactions (Alea & Bluck, 2003 Pasupathi, 2001). A more recent line of research focuses on a different facet of social bonding. When the situation demands, retrieval of autobiographical memories can be used to elicit empathy and reassurance from others (Ainsworth, Bluck, & Baron, 2009 Bender, Lachmann, Pohl, & Chasiotis, 2008 Pohl, Bender, & Lachmann, 2005 Cohen, 1998 Robinson & Swanson, 1990). Pohl and colleagues (2005) had all participants retrieve specific autobiographical memories (e.g., first...

Concluding Comments

Many parents experience stress after their child has been seriously ill. This is especially true when illness results in CNS involvement (Whitaker et al. 2002). After a child is critically ill, many parents' everyday activities are altered. Parents experience social isolation, strained familial relationships, time demands,

Risk Taking Situational or a Trait

Although it may be referred to as a trait, research is still not conclusive and the question remains whether risk taking may be a multi-dimensional construct. There is evidence that other traits and emotions have a positive (increase) or negative (decrease) effect on a person's risk-taking behavior. As shown in Table 1, personality variables such as extraversion and openness have a positive impact on risk taking, while neuroticism (emotional instability) agreeableness and conscientiousness make an individual more risk-averse. Additionally, individual differences in trait anxiety, worry, and social anxiety were each associated with risk avoidance. There is burgeoning interest in understanding the role played by sensation seeking and some emotions which affect risk taking.

General discussion

Further work is required to determine whether there is a sensitive or optimal period for displaying ToM reasoning and whether hearing families who strive to acquire a sign language early can serve to boost ToM in the deaf child. As a number of studies (M. Harris, 1992 Marschark, 1993 Vaccari & Marschark, 1997) have shown, most hearing parents do not have sufficient proficiency in manual communication to optimize social interactions with their deaf children and to converse freely about imaginary or unob-servable topics such as others' beliefs. Moreover, they will often use the oral mode to converse with other hearing family members, innocently limiting a deaf child's access to informal conversations that may encourage ToM development as well as related skills in social cognition (Forrester, 1993). In the present investigation, the level of BSL attained by hearing family members of late-signing deaf children was highly variable. It should be noted that one 8-year-old late signer who...

Prevalence of Specific Dsmiii Dsmiiir or Dsmiv Personality Disorders

The essential feature of avoidant personality disorder is a ''pervasive pattern of social inhibition, feelings of inadequacy, and hypersensitivity to negative evaluation'' (APA, 1994). An important issue in the epidemiology of avoidant personality disorder is its potential overlap with an axis I disorder generalized social phobia. Turner et al. (1991) studied axis II comorbidity in a sample of individuals with social phobias. Avoidant personality disorder was present in 22.1 of the sample and an additional 52.9 of the sample had avoidant features that fell short of meeting the diagnostic threshold. Schneier et al. (1991) studied a sample of 50 patients with social phobias. They found that 70 of patients with social phobia met criteria for avoidant personality disorder and 89 of patients with generalized social phobia received a diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder. Herbert et al. (1992) found that 61 of patients in their series with generalized...

Methodological Issues Diagnostic Issues

Another central issue in diagnosing personality disorders is the occurrence of certain spectrum relationships that exist between personality disorders and axis I disorders, which are thought to represent phenotypic variations of the same underlying pathology. Such relationships have been suggested to exist between borderline personality disorder and depression, depressive personality disorder and depression, schizotypal personality disorder and schizophrenia, avoidant personality disorder and social phobia, cluster B personality disorders and substance use, cluster B and C personality disorders and eating disorders, cluster C personality disorders and anxiety disorders and cluster A and schizophrenia (Tyrer et al., 1997). There is evidence that the co-occurrence of personality disorders with axis I disorders predicts worse outcome than an axis I disorder alone (Reich and Green, 1991) and that personality disorders may impair subsequent axis I treatment response. However,...

Comorbidity and Diagnostic Overlap

When a personality disorder is found to be highly comorbid with another disorder there are several possibilities to consider (1) there may be some significant association between the two, such that one disorder is a risk factor for the other, or both disorders share some underlying risk factor, vulnerability, or pathophysiological process (2) the two diagnoses may describe only one disorder (e.g., avoidant personality disorder and generalized social phobia might be the same disorder) or (3) the diagnostic criteria for the disorders may include overlapping features that promote individuals with certain symptomatology to receive both diagnoses.

The Internet and Mental Health

Researchers have shown that individuals with PIU typically meet criteria for a diagnosis of impulse-control disorder, not otherwise specified (Shapira et al. 2000). Co-occurring psychiatric and substance abuse disorders may be common among persons with severe PIU and may include depression, atten-tion-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and social phobia. (Ko et al. 2008 Yen et al. 2007). (Further examples are nearly infinite for a more detailed discussion of PIU as it relates to psychiatric symptoms and forensic psychiatry, see, e.g., Recupero 2008 and Goldsmith and Shapira 2006.)

Psychiatric Pathogenesis As Communicational Disorder

the brain is a body organ that mediates social interactions while also serving as the repository of those interactions between brain physiology and the individual's environment. The brain is the organ most influenced on the cellular level by social factors across development in turn, the expression of brain function determines and structures an This section first defines the broad nature of human communication and then notes that psychiatric disorders display problems in social interactions from observational-ethological viewpoints. We suggest that pathogenesis formulations unfurl from socio-physiological considerations. A core method for understanding psychiatric pathogenesis entails across-species contrasts and comparisons. When humans and other animals exhibit homologous similarities, a common ancestor can be inferred with genomic and body elements inherited in common. When on the other hand, humans contrast with other animals, the observer can infer that the origins occurred in...

The evolution of sexual dysfunction following TBI

Which facilitates the patient's waking process (Blackerby, 1987 Ducharme & Gill, 1990). Sexual delusions may also be present. The second phase is characterised by inappropriate verbal allusions, confabulation, joking, and sexual approaches. These approaches may also be physical, accompanying the increase in sexual drive. The reentry phase is characterised by insensitivity to others, distractibility, poor judgement, memory disturbance, social isolation, medication effects, altered body image, and altered self-concept. The patient is faced with the changes in role as well as in reintegrating into the family and community. At this stage, the emotional reaction of the patient to the injury, including features of anxiety and depression, will often come into play (Blackerby, 1987 Ducharme & Gill, 1990). These deficits may effect a vicious circle of events triggering feelings of sexual inadequacy and incompetence that, in association with compromise in self-esteem and body image, may lead to...

Social Networking and Blogging

Social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace, Twitter, and Patients-LikeMe), video-sharing sites (e.g., YouTube), and virtual worlds (e.g., Sec-ondLife) have gained an increasingly important role in the transmission of health information and education (Keelan et al. 2007 Vance et al. 2009). Many health organizations have begun advertising or mounting public health information campaigns on sites such as YouTube, and some practitioners use applications such as SecondLife to deliver treatments such as group therapy and exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. At the time of this writing, researchers at Drexel University in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, are conducting a study of Internet-based treatment for social phobia via avatars and simulations in the virtual community SecondLife (see, e.g., http www. coas As with e-mail communications between psychiatrists and patients or evaluees, significant boundary violations could easily develop for example, if the psychiatrist...

Getting Through the Grieving Process

The process of grieving involves the living person's freeing himself from the hold the departed person has over him and finding new and rewarding patterns in daily living and social interactions. The grieving individual must work through in his own way the pain he feels. True acceptance usually involves expressing expected feelings of sadness and loss, and even unexpected feelings of hostility and guilt that may linger. Mental health professionals have specific short-term strategies (usually requiring eight to ten sessions) for helping people work through the mourning process. By working through a process of allowing the deceased back into our lives, thoughts, and feelings, by making our loved one a part of our lives, rather than apart from them, we can learn to accept our loss, as hard that may be, and move through the process of grieving to acceptance.

Why Do Teachers Display Antipathy to Creativity

Characteristics associated with creativity include lack of concern for social norms. Studies have also shown that creative children are significantly more introverted, more self-willed, less satisfied and less controlled than children who display lower levels of creativity. In social situations they are less willing to conform and less interested in making a good impression. To put it plainly and briefly, creative students can sometimes seem to teachers to be 'weird,' defiant, aggressive, self-centered, or antisocial, characteristics which make them disturbing, even threatening. Furthermore, for most teachers, transmitting standard knowledge in an easily understand manner is the essence of their job. Their knowledge is their stock in trade, and any student behavior that seems to offer a challenge to it is a serious matter behavior such as penetrating, unexpected, even challenging questions - no matter how innocently meant - may even threaten teachers' self-esteem. Little wonder that...

Emergence of Social and Emotional Neuropeptides

As we begin to accept that the mammalian brain is a social organ, with neuro-chemistries that promote various interactive social activities and respond in distinct ways to the quality of those interactions (Carter et al., 1999), we should also be less surprised that placebos (Mayberg et al., 2002) and various psychotherapies have demonstrable therapeutic effects on the brain (Baxter et al., 1992 Furmark et al., 2002 Schwartz et al., 1996). Indeed, certain effective psychopharmaceuticals have neural effects similar to placebo effects, with both recruiting social support systems of the brain (Petrovic et al., 2002), which are in part opioid based (Panksepp, 1998a). As we recognize how brain chemical systems change as a function of social experiences (Insel, 1997 Young, 2002), it becomes especially important to consider how distinct environments and therapeutic contexts might provide background support for the emotion-specific chemistries to operate optimally. For instance, social...

Simulation of Relevant Situations

Because tests vary in structure, type of simulation, and complexity of task, they test strengths, weaknesses, and limits of ability. The testing procedures create emotional tension and distractions and then measure their effects on function. The standard battery of psychological tests includes measures of cognitive capacity, memory, attention, and concentration, as well as standard tests of personality characteristics and projective measures to elicit the individual's worldview and organizational capacity. These tests provide a limited replica of daily experience. One way to appreciate the contribution of psychological tests is to consider the testing as a substitute for extensive observation of a person in real-life circumstances and varied social interactions. The tests provide the kind of information that psychiatrists glean through extended treatment of patients or after long hospitalizations.

LUSTSexuality Systems

The neuropeptide that has received the most attention is leutenizing hormone release hormone (LHRH). However, despite very promising animal results, human trials have been largely disappointing (Moss and Dudley, 1984). Whether this is simply due to the fact that this molecule does not penetrate to the right parts of the human brain or whether it requires the support of other psychosocial stimuli is unknown. However, nonpeptide congeners for this peptide receptor system could be developed and evaluated more systematically in psychological contexts that support erotic urges, perhaps in combination with mild facilitation of other systems such as the opioids, which figure heavily in various forms of pleasure as well as social confidence (Panksepp et al., 1985 van den Berg et al., 2000).

Neurobiology and Genetics

Genetic epidemiologic studies have clearly documented that anxiety disorders aggregate in families and that this familial link primarily results from genetic factors (Smoller and Faraone, 2008). First-degree relatives of probands with the major anxiety disorders (panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, OCD) have a fourfold to sixfold increased risk of the index disorders compared to relatives of unaffected probands (Hettema et al., 2001). Genetic studies of GAD suggest that a common genetic susceptibility may apply to clusters of anxiety disorders and other comorbid disorders (Norrholm and Ressler, 2009). An overlap of genes may play a role in the development of multiple psychiatric conditions, including anxiety and depression.

Interaction of Depression and Anxiety

Disorders are more likely to lead to subsequent depression that is, panic disorder, agoraphobia, OCD, PTSD and GAD more frequently lead to depression compared to either social phobia or simple phobia. In addition, patients with both illnesses often have increased severity of symptoms, increased frequency of episodes (either mood or anxiety episodes), poorer response to treatment, higher suicide rates, a more chronic course, and overall poorer prognosis.

Diagnosis of Anxiety Disorders

Panic attacks, a collection of distressing physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms, may occur in a variety of anxiety disorders, such as specific phobias, social phobias, PTSD, and acute stress disorder. Panic attacks are discrete periods of intense fear in the absence of real danger, accompanied by at least 4 of 13 cognitive and physical symptoms (Box 47-4). The attacks have a sudden onset, build to a peak quickly, and are often accompanied by feelings of doom, imminent danger, and a need to escape. Symptoms of panic attacks can include somatic complaints (e.g., sweating, chills), cardiovascular symptoms (pounding heart, accelerated heart rate, chest pain), neurologic symptoms (trembling, unsteadiness, lightheadedness, paresthesias), GI symptoms (choking sensations, nausea), and pulmonary symptoms (shortness of breath). In addition, patients with panic attacks may worry they are dying, going crazy, or have the sensation of being detached from reality.

Substance Induced Disorders

The Shyness & Social Anxiety Workbook Proven Techniques for Overcoming Your Fears. Oakland, CA New Harbinger Publishers. Dayhoff, S. A. (2000). Diagonally Parked in a Parallel Universe Working Through Social Anxiety. Placitas, NM Effectiveness-Plus Publications. Rapee, R. M. (1999). Overcoming Shyness and Social Phobia A Step-by-Step Guide. Northvale, NJ Jason Aronson.

Impact of Growing Old on the Patient

As already discussed, many physical changes occur with aging. Specific disabilities, such as locomotor afflictions, may be particularly handicapping in the presence of normal cognitive functioning. Loss of vision or hearing can lead to social isolation. These physical changes can have a profound effect on the emotional health of the individual. The loss of friends and loved ones may take its toll on the patient as well.

Index Of Dsmivtr Codes Associated With Presenting Problems

Medical Issues Occupational Problem Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Grief Loss Unresolved Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Dependent Traits Peer Group Negativity Relapse Proneness Social Anxiety Skills Deficit (PTSD) Relapse Proneness Sexual Promiscuity Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Suicidal Ideation Borderline Traits Dependent Traits Eating Disorders Family Conflicts Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Disorder (ADD) Borderline Traits Childhood Trauma Depression Eating Disorders Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Suicidal Ideation Childhood Trauma Dependent Traits Occupational Problem Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Dependent Traits Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Borderline Traits Dangerousness Lethality Occupational Problem Relapse Proneness Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Social Phobia 300.23 Social Anxiety Skills Deficit Social Anxiety Skills Deficit

Implicit Theories of Intelligence

Dictionaries, but most of us still have our own implicit (unstated) ideas about what it means to be smart that is, we have our own implicit theories of intelligence. We use our implicit theories in many social situations, such as when we meet people or when we describe people we know as being very smart or not so smart.

Models of Human Development

Although this example takes a stage-like view of human development, another tradition looks to the work of Vygotsky and his followers, seeing development more as a process of internalization from social situations that scaffold for the thinking of the participant (1978). In addition to its Pi-agetian emphasis, the work of Adey and Shayer draws upon social scaffolding. Scar-damalia and colleagues developed an initiative initially called CSILE (Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environments) and now Knowledge Forum, that engages students in the collaborative construction of knowledge through an online environment that permits building complex knowledge structures and labels for many important epistemic elements such as hypotheses and evidence (Scardamalia, et al., 1989). The social character of the enterprise and the forms of discourse it externalizes through the online environment create conditions for Vygotskian internalization of patterns of thinking. Studies of impact have...

Mecanism Of Centripetal Lipid Accumulation Supraclavicular Fat And Face

Hyposecretion of GH can occur as a result of a variety of pathologies, in isolation or as part of panhypopituitarism. Somatotrophic cells are very sensitive to trauma, radiation, and compression. Isolated GH deficiency has been reported after closed head injury,6 and GH is one of the first hormones to be depressed by compression of the pituitary gland from a mass lesion. GH deficiency is most clinically relevant in children, resulting in short stature and delay in puberty, and is the most common presenting symptom in children with pituitary lesions.7 Recently, GH-deficiency syndrome in adults has been recognized, although the diagnosis remains controversial. Symptoms include decreased energy and a feeling of social isolation. In addition, changes in body composition, with an increase in fat and decrease in lean body mass, are reported. Synthetic GH has improved treatment of GH deficiency. There is no orally bioavailable form, and replacement therapy currently requires daily...

Confidence and Social Supremacy

Confidence and Social Supremacy

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