What is the degenerative cascade

Degenerative Cascade Cartilage

The term degenerative cascade was introduced by Dr. Kirkaldy-Willis to explain the typical progression of lumbar spine degeneration. This process is conceptualized in terms of a three-joint complex composed of the intervertebral disc and two zygoapophyseal joints that comprise a functional spinal unit, the smallest anatomic unit of the spinal column that demonstrates its basic functional characteristics. The progression of degenerative changes involving the three-joint complex is conceptualized...

What are nerve root tension signs

Tension signs are maneuvers that tighten the sciatic or femoral nerve and in doing so further compress an inflamed nerve root against a lumbar disc herniation. The supine straight leg raise test (Lasegue's test) and its variants (sitting straight leg raise test, bowstring test, contralateral straight leg raise test) increase tension along the sciatic nerve and are used to assess the L5 and S1 nerve roots. The femoral nerve stretch test (reverse straight leg raise test) increases tension along...

What are flexion exercises Williams exercises When are they appropriate

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Examples of flexion exercises include knee-to-chest exercises (Fig. 14-1), abdominal crunches, and hip flexor stretches. Flexion exercises are commonly prescribed for facet joint pain, lumbar spinal stenosis, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis. Flexion exercises increase intradiscal pressure and are contraindicated in the presence of an acute disc herniation. Flexion exercises are also contraindicated in thoracic and lumbar compression fractures and osteoporotic patients. Flexion exercises...