How is congenital kyphosis classified Fig 424

Type I: Failure of formation Type II: Failure of segmentation Type III: Mixed anomalies

Figure 42-4. Classification of congenital kyphosis. (From McMaster MJ, Singh H. Natural history of kyphosis and kyphoscoliosis: A study of one hundred and twelve patients. J Bone Joint Surg 1999;81 A:1367—83, with permission.)
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