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Figure 16-8. A, Lumbar discogra-phy, anteroposterior view. B, Lateral view showing normal lobular nucleogram of the top disc and abnormal posterior fissures in the lower two discs.

Discogram type

Degeneration

Discogram type

Degeneration

1. Cottonball

No signs of degeneration. Soft white amorphous nucleus

2. Lobular

Mature disc with nucleus starting to coalesce into fibrous lumps

3. Irregular

Degenerated disc with fissures and clefts in the nucleus and inner annulus

4. Fissured

Degenerated disc with radial fissure leading to the outer edge of the annulus

5. Ruptured

Disc has a complete radial fissure that allows injected fluid to escape. Can be in any state of degeneration.

Figure 16-9. The five types of discogram and the stages of disc degeneration that they represent. (From Adams M, Dolan P, Hutton W. The stages of disc degeneration as revealed by discograms. J Bone Joint Surg 1986;68B:36-41, with permission.)

Figure 16-9. The five types of discogram and the stages of disc degeneration that they represent. (From Adams M, Dolan P, Hutton W. The stages of disc degeneration as revealed by discograms. J Bone Joint Surg 1986;68B:36-41, with permission.)

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