T

Technetium. See Bone scan TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation), 103

Tension band principle, 206, 206f Tertiary care, 104 Tethered cord syndrome, 430 Tetraplegia, 404, 407 Therapeutic injections, role of, 103 Therapeutic touch, 148 Thoracic disc herniation, 325-328 laminectomy for, 168 surgical approaches, 168 Thoracic duct, 185 Thoracic hypokyphosis, 282 Thoracic insufficiency syndrome, 301 Thoracic kyphosis, 55, 354 Thoracic pedicle, identifying location of, 191 Thoracic radiculopathy, treatment plan for, 106 Thoracic spine anatomy, 19-25 articulations, ligaments, and discs, 20-21, 20f fascia and musculature, 23, 23f, 24f magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 83f neural, 21-22, 21f osteology, 19-20, 19f vascular, 22 corpectomy, 174 disorder evaluation, 40-45 disc herniation, 41 palpation, 40

performance of evaluation, 41 range of motion, 40 superficial abdominal reflex, 41 disorders disc herniation, 325-328 evaluation of, 40-45 pediatric trauma, 307-309 stenosis, 328 fractures, 386 instrumentation, 206-213 interbody fusion, 173 pediatric spinal trauma, 307-309 radiographic assessment, 72, 72f rehabilitation medicine, 105-110 surgical approaches anterior, 183-189 posterior, 190-194 Thoracic transpedicular approach, 191 Thoracolumbar kyphosis, 282 Thoracolumbosacral orthoses Boston brace, 143, 143f

Thoracolumbosacral orthoses (Continued) classification, 139 motions restricted by, 139 types of full-contact, 140-141, 140f, 141f types of limited contact, 139, 140f Thoracophrenolumbotomy, 185 Thoracoplasty, 241, 276, 352 Thoracotomy chest tube placement after, 185 rib excision, 184 for thoracic disc resection, 327 Three-column model of the spine, 386, 387f Thrusting manipulation, 147 Tolerance, 114 Torg ratio, 413-414, 413f Torticollis, 256-257 Tort system, 60

Transarticular screw, C1-C2, 198-199, 199f, 372-373 Transcranial electric motor-evoked potentials (tceMEPs), 222

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), 103

Transfixation, for spondylolisthesis, 266, 266f

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, 193, 193f

Transient neurologic deficit, 47

Transiliac (sacral) bar, 218

Transition syndrome, 241, 356

Translaminar screw, 198, 198f

Translational injuries, 396-397, 397f

Transoral approach, 178, 179f, 180f, 478-479

Transperitoneal approach, 187

Transpsoas approach to lumbar spine, 188

Transsacral fixation, 218

Transverse atlantal ligament, 306

injuries to, 370-372, 371f Transvertebral graft, 174 Transvertebral screw fixation, 361 Trauma, spinal cervical lower, 376-385 upper, 367-375 pediatric, 304-310 cervical spine, 305-307 thoracic and lumbar spine, 307-309 Triangular osteosynthesis, 402 Tricortical fixation, 215 Tricyclic antidepressants, side effects of, 117 Trigger point injections, 103 Trunk extension strength, 110 T-score, 452, 452t Tuberculosis, 282, 470-471 Tubular microdiscectomy, 491, 491f Tumors primary spine, 434-442 algorithm for evaluating, 437f oncologic staging, 436

WBB (Weinstein, Boriani, Biagini), 439-440, 439f, 441 Weinstein's tumor zone system, 438-439, 438f WHO classification, 435t spinal cord, 424-427 in children, 254

extradural, 424-425, 425f, 425t intradural-extramedullary, 424, 426, 426f, 426t intramedullary, 424, 427, 427f, 427t location, 424, 424f

Tumors (Continued)

surgery contraindications, 159 surgery indications, 153-154 technetium bone scan for, 99 Two-poster cervicothoracic orthosis, 135, 135f

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