What are Cobb angles How are they measured

Cobb angles are used to define the magnitude of curves on posteroanterior (PA) and lateral radiographs of the spine. Vertebral bodies at the top and bottom of the curve are called the end vertebrae. Cobb angles are measured from the top of the upper end vertebra to the bottom of the lower end vertebra. Curve progression is evaluated by measuring the same end vertebra on serial radiographs. Thoracic kyphosis is measured from T2 to T12 and lumbar lordosis from L1 to S1. There is approximately 6° of error in the Cobb angle measurement.

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