What are normal values for thoracic kyphosis lumbar lordosis and sagittal vertical axis in adults

There is a wide range of normal values in adults. Thoracic kyphosis (T2-T12) varies between 30° and 50°. Lumbar lordosis varies between 45° and 70°. The sagittal vertical axis passes within 2 cm of the posterior superior corner of S1. A correlation between increasing thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis tends to maintain spinal balance. In general, lumbar lordosis exceeds thoracic kyphosis by 20° to 30° to maintain spinal balance and normal position of the sagittal vertical axis.

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