What clinical and radiographic factors suggest that a child with spondylolisthesis is likely to have persistent symptoms slip progression and spinal deformity

See Table 38-2.

Table 38-2. Risk Factors for Symptomatic or Progressive Spondylolisthesis

CLINICAL FACTORS

RADIOGRAPHIC FACTORS

Young age

Dysplastic type of spondylolisthesis

Female sex

Unstable radiographic contour (dome-shaped sacrum, trapezoidal-shaped L5 vertebra)

Presence of back pain symptoms

Instability on dynamic radiographs Degree of slip > 50% Slip angle > 40°

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