What complications have been reported in association with cervical total disc arthroplasty

Complications following cervical TDR may be a result of:

• Improper surgical indications: Poor patient selection (e.g. axial pain syndromes, nonorganic pain syndromes), segmental instability, osteoporotic patients, patients with facet arthropathy

• Complications related to the surgical approach: Dysphagia, recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, vertebral artery injury, esophageal injury

• Complications related to the implant: Migration, subsidence, vertebral body endplate fracture, polyethylene or metal wear, kyphotic deformity

• Complications related to decompression of the spinal canal: Inadequate foraminal decompression leading to radiculopathy, dural tear, neurologic injury

• Miscellaneous: Heterotopic ossification

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