Medial Plica Syndrome Cont

EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OUTCOMES

Normal clinical symptoms and signs. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES Meniscus tear, chondral injuries, OCD, chondromalacia patellar, patella instability or mal-tracking, quadriceps insufficiency, Sinding-Larsen's syndrome, synovitis,

PVNS, patellar tendon disorders, referred pain, secondary symptoms from ankle or back insufficiency, core instability and more. PROGNOSIS Excellent but frequently these patients return with this painful condition in the other knee.

Fig. 115 Tenderness on palpation of the joint line indicates a local synovitis, often caused by an underlying cartilage or meniscal injury

Fig. 114 Compression and rotation test provokes pain but cannot differentiate between a meniscus and a cartilage tear

SYMPTOMS Effusion and exercise-induced pain often combined with mechanical problems of locking, clicking, clunking or discomfort on impact (compression and rotation). This injury is common in sports such as football, rugby and other high-intensity contact sports but is also common, with no major trauma, as degenerative tears in older athletes or sedentary individuals. AETIOLOGY In many cases this injury occurs from direct or indirect trauma or in association with other ligament injuries. It can occur from around 10 years of age and throughout life. Note! There are numerous ways the meniscus can rupture: horizontal, vertical, bucket handle or complex tears. The tear can be localised posteriorly, centrally or anteriorly, causing different symptoms and signs. CLINICAL FINDINGS There is effusion in most cases. The compression rotation test is positive. There is often tenderness on palpation of the affected joint

Fig. 115 Tenderness on palpation of the joint line indicates a local synovitis, often caused by an underlying cartilage or meniscal injury

Fig. 116 Meniscus tear, as seen by arthroscopy

line and there are complementary tests for the same purpose. Note! Since there are often associated injuries, examination must include tests for ligaments, cartilage and capsular structures. INVESTIGATIONS Clinical examination is the most important tool for diagnosis and should include tests for all ligaments and other structures in the knee. X-ray is valuable to rule out fractures and severe osteoarthritis. MRI can sometimes miss

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Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis

Thank you for deciding to learn more about the disorder, Osteoarthritis. Inside these pages, you will learn what it is, who is most at risk for developing it, what causes it, and some treatment plans to help those that do have it feel better. While there is no definitive “cure” for Osteoarthritis, there are ways in which individuals can improve their quality of life and change the discomfort level to one that can be tolerated on a daily basis.

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