Hormonedependent cancers

The relationship between physical activity and breast, ovarian or uterine cancers has been investigated in more than 20 studies. Most of the cohort studies suffer from methodologic problems involving the assessment of physical activity, lack of statistical power and a very long follow-up period. The latter increases misclassifi-cation because of true changes in behavior since the baseline measurement. A recent Norwegian study included 25624 women with 351 cases of breast cancer [93]. After adjustment for age, BMI, number of children and socioeconomic background, the physically active at work had only half the rate of the physically inactive and in the analysis of physical activity in leisure time, the active had a 0.63 lower rate. However, more good studies are needed before sound conclusions can be drawn about the relationship between physical activity and these types of cancers.

In men, the association between physical activity/ fitness and risk of prostate and testicular cancers has been studied. Oliveria et al. [94] found in a study including 13 000 men that the most fit men had a relative risk of prostate cancer of 0.26 (95% CI0.10-0.63) compared to the unfit after adjustment for age, BMI and smoking. This conclusion is supported by other studies of the general population, but in some studies where the incidence is compared between athletes and non-athletes, the athletes have had a higher rate [95]. Only a few studies have been published on physical activity and testicular cancer. Therefore, it is too early to conclude that there is an association between physical activity and these cancers.

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