Prevention of type 2 diabetes

The convincing epidemiologic evidence linking physical inactivity to the development of type 2 diabetes is supported by a few intervention studies. In the 6-year Malmo feasibility study, 181 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 41 type 2 diabetic patients participated in an intervention program which consisted of supervised training and dietary advice organized either as group sessions or individually for 1 year [8]. The subjects were then encouraged to continue exercise without supervision from the investigators for 5 years. At 6 years, body weight was reduced 2.3-3.7% amongst participants as compared to 0.5-1.7% in non-intervened subjects. Maximal oxygen uptake was increased by 10-14% vs. decreased by 5-9% in participants vs. control subjects. Glucose tolerance was normalized in 52% of the subjects with IGT and in 23% in those with type 2 diabetes in the intervention groups, as compared to 36% in an IGT control group [8]. These encouraging data may not, however, be generally applicable since the participants were not randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. This study also could not distinguish between physical activity vs. diet in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. These limitations do not apply to the Da-Qing study, where 577 subjects were randomized to either a control group or to one of three active treatment groups: diet only, exercise only or diet plus exercise [9]. The diet, exercise, and diet plus exercise interventions were associated with 31%, 46% and 42% reductions in developing diabetes over a 6-year period. All reductions were statistically significant. These data are novel in being the first to demonstrate in a randomized controlled trial that exercise alone can prevent type 2 diabetes. Recently, a lifestyle modification program, with the goals of at least a 7% weight loss and at least 150 min of physical activity per week, was shown in a large randomized trial in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance in the US to reduce the incidence of diabetes by 58% over a 2.8 year follow-up period [10]. Average weight loss was 5.6 kg in the lifestyle intervention and 0.1 kg in the placebo group. Similar data were reported in a Finnish study also in overweight subjects with IGT [11]. The contribution of weight loss as compared to increased physical activity to the observed reduction in the incidence of diabetes was not determined in these studies.

Weight Loss New Years Resolution Success

Weight Loss New Years Resolution Success

Sure you haven’t tried this program before but you no doubt aren’t a stranger to the dieting merry go-round that has been plaguing your life up to this point.

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