In conclusion, forefoot problems are common in athletes. Most nonacute problems may be managed conservatively with good success. In the carefully chosen patient, various surgical procedures may be successful. Acute injuries such as severe turf toe injuries and fractures may more often require surgical intervention. Return to competitive or sporting activity must be based on each individual's response to treatment.

9. Wiener BD, Linder JF, Giattini JF: Treatment of fractures of the fifth metatarsal: A prospective study. Foot Ankle Int 1997; 18:267269.

10. Gefen A: Biomechanical analysis of fatigue-related foot injury mechanisms in athletes and recruits during intensive marching. Med Biol Eng Comput 2002;40:302-210.

11. Korpelainen R, Orava S, Karpakka J, et al: Risk factors for recurrent stress fractures in athletes. Am J Sports Med 2001;29:304-310.

12. Milgrom C, Finestone A, Sharkey N, et al: Metatarsal strains are sufficient to cause fatigue fracture during cyclic overloading. Foot Ankle Int 2002;23:230-235.

13. O'Malley MJ, Hamilton WG, Munyak J, et al: Stress fractures at the base of the second metatarsal in ballet dancers. Foot Ankle Int 1996;17:89-94.

14. Bowers KD Jr, Martin RB: Turf-toe: A shoe-surface related football injury. Med Sci Sports 1976;8:81-83.

15. Watson TS, Anderson RB, Davis WH: Periarticular injuries to the hallux metatarsophalangeal joint in athletes. Foot Ankle Clin 2000;5: 687-713.

16. DiGiovanni CW Kuo R, Tejwani N, et al: Isolated gastrocnemius tightness. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002;84:962-970.

17. Richardson EG: Hallucal sesamoid pain: Causes and surgical treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1999;7:270-278.

18. Allen MA, Casillas MM: The passive axial compression (PAC) test: A new adjunctive provocative maneuver for the clinical diagnosis of hallucal sesamoiditis. Foot Ankle Int 2001;22:345-346.

19. Anderson RB, McBryde AM: Autogenous bone grafting of hallux sesamoid non-unions. Foot Ankle Int 1997;18:293-296.

20. Saxena A, Krisdakumtorn T: Return to activity after sesamoidectomy in athletically active individuals. Foot Ankle Int 2003;24:415-419.

21. Kay D, Bennett GL: Morton's neuroma. Foot Ankle Clin 2003;8:49-59.

22. Ashman CJ, Klecker RJ, Yu JS: Forefoot pain involving the metatarsal region: Differential diagnosis with MR imaging. Radiographics 2001;21:1425-1440.

23. Jarboe NE, Quesada PM: The effects of cycling shoe stiffness on forefoot pressure. Foot Ankle Int 2003;24:784-788.



Foot and Ankle Rehabilitation

John Nyland

In This Chapter

Functional deficits

Mechanical and functional instability Taping and bracing Older, athletically active individuals Performance testing

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Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

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