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SLAP tears may be caused by overuse such as in an overhead athlete. Conversely, SLAP tears may be the result of a traction or traumatic compression injury. Oftentimes, SLAP tears are identified in patients with no history of overuse or trauma. For many patients, initial conservative treatment consisting of rest, anti-inflammatory medication, and physical therapy is appropriate. Patients who do not respond to these conservative measures should be considered for surgery. Patients with high-demand work or athletic activities may be considered for early surgical treatment. SLAP tears with superior labrum and/or biceps anchor detachment from the glenoid rim should be arthroscop-ically repaired. SLAP lesions without labrum or biceps detachment may be treated with debridement.

7. O'Brien SJ, Pagnani MJ, Fealy S, et al: The active compression test: A new and effective test for diagnosing labral tears and acromioclavicular joint abnormality. Am J Sports Med 1998;26:610-613.

8. Connell DA, Potter HG, Wickiewicz TL, et al: Noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging of superior labral lesions: 102 cases confirmed at arthroscopic surgery. Am J Sports Med, 1999;27:208-213.

9. Burkhead WZ, Arcand MA, Zeman C, et al: The biceps tendon. In Rockwood CA, Matsen FA III (eds): The Shoulder, vol 2. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1998, pp 1009-1063.

10. Cooper DE, Arnoczky SP, O'Brien SJ, et al: Anatomy, histology, and vascularity of the glenoid labrum. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1992;74:46-52.

11. Pollock RG: Tissues of the shoulder and their structure. In Norris TR (ed): OKU Shoulder and Elbow, vol 2. Rosemont, IL, AAOS, 2002, pp 3-12.

12. Habermeyer P, Kaiser E, Knappe M, et al: Functional anatomy and bio-mechanics of the long biceps tendon. Unfallchirurg 1997;90:319-329.

13. Vangsness CT Jr, Jorgenson SS, Watson T, Johnson DL: The origin of the long head of the biceps from the scapula and glenoid labrum. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1994;76:951-954.

14. Gerber A, Apreleva M, Warner JP: Basic science of glenohumeral instability. In Norris TR (ed): OKU Shoulder and Elbow, vol 2. Rosemont, IL, AAOS, 2002, pp 13-22.

15. Snyder SJ, Banas MP, Karzel RP: An analysis of 140 injuries to the superior glenoid labrum. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1995;4:243-248.

16. Morgan CD, Burkhart SS, Palmeri M, et al: Type II SLAP lesions: Three subtypes and their relationships to superior instability and rotator cuff tears. Arthroscopy 1998;14:553-565.

17. DiRaimondo CA, Alexander JW Noble PC, et al: A biomechanical comparison of repair techniques for type II SLAP lesions. Am J Sports Med 2004;32:727-733.

18. O'Brien SJ, Allen AA, Coleman SH, et al: The trans-rotator cuff approach to SLAP lesions: Technical aspects for repair and a clinical follow-up or 31 patients at a minimum of 2 years. Arthroscopy 2002; 18:372-377.

19. Samani J, Marston S, Buss D: Arthroscopic stabilization of type II SLAP lesions using an absorbable tack. Arthroscopy 2001;17:19-24.

20. Kim SH, Ha KI, Kim SH, et al: Results of arthroscopic treatment of superior labrum lesions. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002;84:981-985.

21. Ide J, Maeda S, Takagi K: Sports activity after arthroscopic superior labral repair using suture anchors in overhead-throwing athletes. Am J Sports Med 2005;33:507-514.

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