Epidemiology

Dorn Spinal Therapy

Spine Healing Therapy

Get Instant Access

STANDARD NEUROLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF SPINAL CORD INJURY

MOTOR

KEY MUSCLES

MOTOR

KEY MUSCLES

C2

C2

CS

CS

C4

C4

CS

Elbow flexors

CS

Ce

Wrist extensors

Ce

C?

Elbow extensors

C?

CS

Finger flexors (distal phalanx of middle finger) CS

Ti

Finger abductors (little finger)

Ti

T2

T2

TS

0 = total paralysis

TS

T4

1 = palpable or visible contraction

T4

TS

2 = active movement,

TS

Te

gravity eliminated

Te

T? TS

3 = active movement,

T? TS

against gravity 4 = active movement,

T9

against some resistance

T9

TiO

5 = active movement,

TiO

Ti i

against full resistance

Ti i

Ti2

NT = not testable

Ti2

Li

Li

L2

_

_

Hip flexors

L2

LS

_

_

Knee extensors

LS

L4

Ankle dorsiflexors

L4

LS

_

_

Long toe extensors

LS

Si

_

_

Ankle plantar flexors

Si

S2

S2

SS

SS

S4-S

c

_1 Voluntary anal contraction (Yes/No) S4-S

TOTALS

n+

n

=

^ MOTOR SCORE

IOIALS{

PIN PRICK R L

SENSORY

KEY SENSORY POINTS

PIN PRICK R L

SENSORY

KEY SENSORY POINTS

LIGHT TOUCH

Figure 15-1 American Spinal Cord Injury Association classification of spinal cord injury.

PIN PRICK SCORE (max: 112) LIGHT TOUCH SCORE (max 112)

Figure 15-1 American Spinal Cord Injury Association classification of spinal cord injury.

PIN PRICK SCORE (max: 112) LIGHT TOUCH SCORE (max 112)

LIGHT TOUCH

NEUROLOGICAL R L ZONE OF PARTIAL R L

LEVEL SENSORY l"^!-1 COMPLETE OR PRESERVATION SENSORY rHI~~l

Thejmostafisg;"1 motorHH INCOMPLETE^^ ^ ^ I MOTORQQ

This form may be copied freely but should not be altered without permission from the American Spinal Injury Association.

maintaining in-line cervical immobilization with log rolling, leaving the shoulder pads and helmet in place with face mask removal is important in the prehospital care of athletes suspected of a head or spinal injury. Several studies have demonstrated that trying to remove the helmet with the shoulder pads left in place causes unacceptable degrees of motion of the cervical spine that may compromise the injured cervical spine.9-11 A well-rehearsed action plan for suspected head or cervical spine injury cannot be overemphasized. Athletes with altered mental status, neck pain, tenderness or limited motion, or neurologic deficits should be transported to a medical facility while maintaining cervical spine immobilization with continued evaluation of airway, breathing, and circulation.

A complete neurologic examination including cranial nerve and orientation testing is mandatory. Active range of cervical motion should be evaluated within the levels of comfort. The examiner should palpate the athlete's neck both in the midline and paraspinal regions to assess for tenderness, step-off, hematoma, and muscular spasm. Upper and lower extremity strength testing should be graded and recorded. Sensory testing to light touch, temperature, and pinprick is also performed. An evaluation for abnormal reflexes such as a Hoffman's sign, Babin-ski's response, and spasticity should be performed. Spurling's maneuver may be performed and may indicate nerve root irritation secondary to spondylosis or acute disk herniation. If deficits are present, they are usually radicular. More profound deficits such as an incomplete spinal cord injury should be further characterized as central cord, Brown-Sequard, anterior, or posterior spinal cord syndromes as these categories have different prognoses for recovery. All findings should be recorded according to the American Spinal Cord Injury Association scoring system12 (Fig. 15-1).

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment