Athletes who participate in running, jumping, and cutting sports are at risk of foot and ankle injuries, particularly lateral ankle sprains. Ankle injuries are responsible for more than 25% of time lost from sports participation, may develop into a chronic disability in up to 30% to 40% of cases, and have an injury recurrence rate as high as 80%.1,2 Distal syndesmosis or high ankle sprains account for between 10% and 20% of all ankle sprains with considerably more disability and a greater loss of sports participation time than with lateral ankle sprains.3
Both capsuloligamentous and musculotendinous foot and ankle tissues have mechanoreceptors that send increasing afferent signals as tension increases during dynamic functional stability challenges, resulting in efferent neuromuscular responses.
Cutaneous and pressure receptors located in the plantar surface of the foot also have a significant influence over the protective activation of the lower leg muscles.4 Reduced plantar fascia stiffness due to injury may create a more deformable longitudinal arch and a more pronated foot. Intensified stresses in the centralized metatarsals, dorsal calcaneocuboid joint junction, plantar ligaments, and their attachment bony areas after plantar fascia injury or surgical release may cause stress or fatigue failure and subsequent midfoot pain.5,6 Foot impairments related to turf toe and/or heel conditions can also affect plantar fascia stiffness, thereby contributing to dysfunction both in the foot and proxi-mally up the lower extremity kinetic chain.
Neural tissue heals much more slowly than other body tissues, conceivably leading to a mechanically stable foot or ankle prior to the re-establishment of a functionally stable ankle. Chronic symptoms following foot or ankle injury may include decreased proprioception, muscle weakness, delayed reflex and reaction times, and diminished postural control.7
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Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.