Not all feet or ankles that are mechanically unstable are functionally unstable, and the cause-effect relationship between these variables is highly questionable. The anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments function in tandem to stabilize the ankle joint. The ankle is in its most stable osseous position when it is dorsiflexed and is in its most unstable position when it is plantar flexed. Sudden displacement of the foot and ankle activates a sequence of neuromuscular responses in which motor programs interact with peripheral reflexes. Afferent information is provided by proprioceptors in addition to the visual, vestibular, and auditory systems. In a plantar flexed, inverted ankle, the peroneal muscle activation provides a dynamic defense mechanism that is far more effective than any combination of footwear, taping, or bracing.8 Fortunately, this dynamic defense mechanism is most effective when the ankle is in its most vulnerable position (plantar flexed, inverted) for lateral capsu-loligamentous injury. When the ankle is in this position, the peroneal muscles create 63% to 73% more power than when the ankle is aligned in neutral.8 Programmed foot and ankle muscle responses vary according to the direction of the perturbation, the phase of gait, and the alignment of the foot on the ground. When peripheral afferent input is compromised, there is an increased reliance on visual and vestibular cues. While protective peroneal muscle activation may occur in patients with chronic ankle instability, the response is delayed significantly. When the patient is at rest, normal peroneal muscle activation latency, in addition to electromechanical delay, is insufficient to
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Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.