Nonoperative Treatment

Nonoperative treatment is indicated when the injury did not require a reduction maneuver and the mortise is not widened on standard radiographs. There is usually no medial tenderness to palpation. Subtle medial tenderness to palpation with fracture of the lateral malleolus and without fracture of the medial

Figure 68-1 Bony ankle anatomy. (From Pugh KJ: Fractures and soft-tissue injuries about the ankle. In Fitzgerald RH, Kaufer H, Malkami AL [eds]: Orthopaedics. St. Louis, Mosby, 2002, p 422.)

The intramalleolar distance increases an average of 1.5 mm when the ankle goes from full plantarflexion to full dorsiflexion. This motion as well as rotation is allowed by the mobile relationship of the tibia and fibula at the syndesmosis. The tibia can rotate 5 to 6 degrees on the talus in walking and almost half of this comes from the inferior tibiofibular joint.7 There is only a 1- to 2-degree increase in external rotation of the fibula with isolated section of the anteroinferior tibiofibular ligament with no effect on frontal plane motion.8 When all the ligaments are cut, there is a 10.2-degree increase in rotation.9

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Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Cure Tennis Elbow Without Surgery

Everything you wanted to know about. How To Cure Tennis Elbow. Are you an athlete who suffers from tennis elbow? Contrary to popular opinion, most people who suffer from tennis elbow do not even play tennis. They get this condition, which is a torn tendon in the elbow, from the strain of using the same motions with the arm, repeatedly. If you have tennis elbow, you understand how the pain can disrupt your day.

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