1. Kuhlman GS, McKeag DB: The "burner": A common nerve injury in contact sports. Am Fam Physician 1999;60:2035-2042.
2. Castro FP: Stingers, cervical cord neurapraxia, and stenosis. Clin Sports Med 2003;22:483-492.
3. Albright JP, Moses JM, Feldick HG, et al: Nonfatal cervical spine injuries in interscholastic football. JAMA 1976;236:1243-1245.
4. Torg JS, Guille JT, Jaffe S: Injuries to the cervical spine in American football players. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2002;84:112-122.
5. Torg JS, Vegso JJ, O'Neill MJ, et al: The epidemiologic, pathologic, bio-mechanical, and cinematographic analysis of football-induced cervical spine trauma. Am J Sports Med 1990;18:50-57.
6. Cooper MT, McGee KM, Anderson DG: Epidemiology of athletic head and neck injuries. Clin Sports Med 2003;22:427-443.
7. Wang JC, Hatch JD, Sandhu HS, et al: Cervical flexion and extension radiographs in acutely injured patients. Clin Orthop 1999;365:111-116.
8. Gerrelts BD, Petersen EU, Mabry J, et al: Delayed diagnosis of cervical spine injuries. J Trauma 1991;31:1622-1626.
9. Swenson TM, Lauerman WC, Blanc RO, et al: Cervical spine alignment in the immobilized football player. Radiographic analysis before and after helmet removal. Am J Sports Med 1997;25:226-230.
10. Donaldson WF 3rd, Lauerman WC, Heil B, et al: Helmet and shoulder pad removal from a player with suspected cervical spine injury. A cadaveric model. Spine 1998;23:1729-1732.
11. Peris MD, Donaldson WF 3rd, Towers J, et al: Helmet and shoulder pad removal in suspected cervical spine injury: Human control model. Spine 2002;27:995-998.
12. American Spinal Injury Association, International Medical Society of Paraplegia: International Standards for Neurological and Functional
Classification of Spinal Cord Injury, Revised 1996. Chicago, American Spinal Injury Association, 1996.
13. Gore DR, Sepic SB, Gardner GM: Radiographic findings of the cervical spine in asymptomatic people. Spine 1986;11:521-524.
14. Friedenberg ZB, Miller WT: Degenerative disk disease of the cervical spine: A comparative study of asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1963;45:1171-1178.
15. Healy JF, Healy B, Wong WH, et al: Cervical and lumbar MRI in asymptomatic older male lifelong athletes: Frequency of degenerative findings. J Comp Assist Tomogr 1996;20:107-112.
16. Berge J, Marque B, Vital JM, et al: Age related changes in the cervical spine of front-line rugby players. Am J Sport Med 1999;27:422-429.
17. Wang JC, Boyce RH: Evaluation of neck pain, radiculopathy, and myelopathy: Imaging, conservative treatment, and surgical indications. In An H (ed): Instructional Course Lectures: Spine. Chicago, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, 2003, pp 15-21.
18. Levine MJ, Albert TJ, Smith MD: Cervical radiculopathy: Diagnosis and nonoperative management. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1996;4:305-316.
19. Boden SD, McCowin PR, Davis DO, et al: Abnormal magnetic resonance scans of the cervical spine in asymptomatic subjects: A prospective investigation. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1990;72:1178-1184.
20. Mintz DN: Magnetic resonance imaging of sports injuries of the cervical spine. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2004;8:99-110.
21. Wolf BS, Khilnani M, Malis L: The sagittal diameter of the bony cervical spinal canal and its significance in cervical spondylosis. J Mt Sinai Hosp NY 1956;23:283-292.
22. Penning L: Some aspects of plain radiography of the cervical spine in chronic myelopathy. Neurology 1962;12:513-519.
23. Torg JS, Pavlov HK, Genuario SE, et al: Neurapraxia of the cervical spinal cord with transient quadriplegia. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1986;68:1354-1370.
24. Herzog RJ, Wiens JJ, Dillingham MF, et al: Normal cervical spine morphometry and cervical spinal stenosis in asymptomatic professional football players. Plain film radiography, multiplanar, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Spine 1991:16(Suppl):S178-S186.
25. Payne E, Spillane J: The cervical spine and anatomico-pathological study of 70 specimens with particular reference to the problem of cervical spondylolysis. Brain 1957;80:571-596.
26. Moiel R, Raso E, Waltz T: Central cord syndrome resulting from congenital narrowness of the cervical spinal canal. J Trauma 1970; 10: 502-510.
27. Dee R, Hurst LC, Bruber MA, et al: Principles of Orthopaedic Practice, 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1997, p 1352.
28. Murone I: The importance of the sagittal diameters of the cervical canal in relation to spondylosis and myelopathy. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1974;56:30-36.
29. Blackley HR, Plank LD, Robertson PA. Determining the sagittal dimensions of the cervical spine. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1999;81:110-112.
30. Prasad SS, O'Malley M, Caplan M, et al: MRI measurements of the cervical spine and their relation to Pavlov's ration. Spine 2003;28: 1263-1268.
31. Matsuura P, Waters RL, Adkins RH, et al: Comparison of computerized tomography parameters of the cervical spine in normal control subjects and spinal cord injured patients. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1989;71: 183-188.
32. Cantu RC: Functional cervical spinal stenosis: A contraindication to participation in contact sports. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1993;25:316-317.
33. Burrows EH: The sagittal diameter of the spinal canal in cervical spondy-losis. Clin Radiol 1963;14:77-86.
34. Cantu RC: The cervical spinal stenosis controversy. Clin Sports Med 1998;17:121-126.
35. Torg JS, Naranja RJ, Pavlov H, et al: The relationship of developmental narrowing of the cervical spinal canal to reversible and irreversible injury of the cervical spinal cord in football players. An epidemiological study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1996;78:1308-1314.
36. Torg JS, Ramsey-Emrhein JA: Cervical spine and brachial plexus injuries: Return to play recommendations. Phys Sport Med 1997;25:61-88.
37. Kang JD, Figgie MP, Bohlman HH: Sagittal measurements of the cervical spine in subaxial fractures and dislocations. An analysis of two hundred and eighty-eight patients with and without neurological deficits. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1994;76:1617-1628.
38. Cantu RC, Mueller FO: Catastrophic football injuries 1977-1988. Neurosurgery 2000;47:673-677.
39. Curl LA: Side line decisions and close encounters. Presented at the 2003 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, New Orleans, LA.
40. Taylor AR: The mechanism of injury to the spinal cord in the neck without damage to the vertebral column. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1951; 33B:543-547.
41. Torg JS, Thibault L, Sennett B, et al: The pathomechanics and patho-physiology of cervical spinal cord injury. Clin Orthop 1995;321: 259-269.
42. Zwimpfer TJ, Bernstein M: Spinal cord concussion. J Neurosurg 1990;72:894-900.
43. Torg JS, Corcoran TA, Thibault LE, et al: Cervical cord neurapraxia: Classification, pathomechanics, morbidity and management guidelines. J Neurosurg 1997;87:843-850.
44. Vaccaro AR, Watkins B, Albert TJ, et al: Cervical spine injuries in athletes: Current return to play criteria. Orthopedics 2001;24:699-703.
45. Zmurko MG, Tannoury TY, Tannoury CA, et al: Cervical sprains, disc herniations, minor fractures, and other cervical injuries in the athlete. Clin Sports Med 2003;22:513-523.
46. Torg JS, Sennett B, Pavlov H, et al: Spear tackler's spine: An entity precluding participation in tackle football and collision activities that expose the cervical spine to axial energy inputs. Am J Sports Med 1993;21:640-649.
47. Albert TJ, Murrell SE: Surgical management of cervical radiculopathy. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1999;7:368-376.
48. Marks MR, Bell GR, Boumphrey FR: Cervical spine injuries and their neurologic implications. Clin Sports Med 1990:9:263-278.
49. Mazur JM, Stauffer ES: Unrecognized spinal instability associated with seemingly "simple" cervical compression fractures. Spine 1983;8:687-692.
50. Laporte C, Laville C, Lazennee JY, et al: Severe hyperflexion sprains of the lower cervical spine in adults. Clin Orthop 1999;363:126-134.
Was this article helpful?