Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (ASIQ)
A 25-item, self-reporting questionnaire created by William Reynolds, the ASIQ screens college students and adults in general for suicidal ideation. Used during intake interviews or during treatment, this test alerts professionals of a possible suicide risk. The test takes approximately 10 minutes to complete and training is required. Reynolds (1990) reports a consistency reliability coefficient of .95. See www.sigmaassessmentsystems.com / asiq.htm.
Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS)
A 20-item scale developed by Aaron Beck, the BHS is used to measure three major aspects of hopelessness: feelings about the future, loss of motivation, and expectancies. A high BHS score alerts counselors to unstated or denied suicidal intentions. Taking about 15 minutes to complete, training is required. A. T. Beck and Steer (1989) report consistency reliability coefficients ranges of .82 to .93. See www.cps.nova.edu/~cpphelp/BHS.html.
Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
A self-administered 21-item instrument developed by Aaron T. Beck, the BDI measures symptoms of depression. It takes approximately 10 minutes to complete and clients usually require a sixth-grade reading level to accurately respond. The BDI has different forms, including a shorter version with 13 questions, computerized forms, and a BDI-II. A. T. Beck and Steer (1997) explains that the BDI is reliable in distinguishing between depressed and nonde-pressed people and yields a consistency range of 73 to 95. Scores determine normal ups and downs, mild to moderate depression, moderate to severe depression, and severe depression. See www.cps.nova.edu/~cpphelp/BDI.html. To learn more about Beck's other inventories for assessing Anxiety and Suicide, see the Beck Institute web site at www.beckinstitute.org.
Children's Depression Scale (CDS)
Created by M. Lang, the CDS measures depression and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents between the ages of 9 and 16. The CDS may also be used with younger or learning-disabled children. It consists of 66 questions divided into 48 depressive and 18 positive items including social problems, self-esteem, preoccupation with sickness and death, and pleasure and enjoyment. Kazdin (1987) report consistency reliability coefficients with a range of 82 to 97. See www.criminology.unimelb.edu.au/victims/resources/assessment/affect /cds.html.
Detailed Assessment of Posttraumatic Stress (DAPS)
A 104-item clinical measure designed by John Briere, the DAPS assesses trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress in individuals who have a history of exposure to one or more potentially traumatic events. The DAPS assesses both current and lifetime history of DSM-IV-TR trauma experiences and symptoms, including substance use, avoidance, hyperarousal, and suicidality. The test takes approximately 30 minutes to complete, and training is required. The DAPS scales have a higher internal consistency than many other measures of PTSD. See www.parinc.com/product.cfm?ProductID=528.
Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II)
A 175-item self-reporting instrument created by Theodore Millon, the MCMI-II assesses personality disorders and clinical syndromes in adults undergoing psychological and psychiatric assessments. Used in clinical and counseling sessions, this test consists of 175 true/false questions and takes approximately 25 minutes to complete. An eighth-grade reading level is required. Results are based on a national sample of 1,292 male and female clients who have DSM-III-R diagnoses. This assessment is specifically designed to assess both Axis I and Axis II disorders. Domino (2000) documents good reliability and validity. See www.cps.nova.edu/~cpphelp/MCMI-2.html. Also note that Psychological Publications, Inc. 2002 Catalog provides a URL listing of other personality tests and tools www.tjta.com/cat03B.html.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A)
James Butcher and Carolyn Williams developed the MMPI-A to identify personal, social, and behavioral problems among adolescents. Common problems identified are family issues, chemical dependency, and eating disorders. Administered by school, clinical, and counseling psychologists, the MMPI-A aids in diagnosis and treatment planning specifically for youth, ages 14 to 18. A sixth-grade reading level is required for completion, and the test takes approximately one hour. Literature is supportive of MMPI-A validity, and the test yields an estimated consistency reliability coefficient of .90 (C. L. Williams, 1992). See www.pearsonassessments.com/assessments/tests/mmpia.htm.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2)
Authored by Starke Hathaway and Charnley McKinley, the MMPI-2 is one of the most used personality assessments. Developed in 1943 and revised in 1989, it assesses chemical dependency; physical and psychological health; political and social attitudes; educational, occupational, family, and marital factors; and neurotic and psychotic behaviors. The MMPI-2 also includes the Addiction Admission Scale (AAS) with built-in lie detecting that increases the reliability and validity of the test. Domino (2000) reports that because of the complexity of the MMPI-2, it is difficult to assess reliability and validity, though the research generally supports the MMPI-2. See www.pearsonassessments.com.
Multidimensional Anxiety Questionnaire (MAQ)
A 40-item multidimensional self-report measure for assessing a wide range of anxiety symptoms, the MAQ targets adults aged 18 to 89 years. It provides a global assessment of anxiety symptoms in four areas: physiological-panic, social phobia, worry-fears, and negative affective domains of anxiety. Useful in clinical and college settings, the test takes about 20 minutes to complete and minimal training is required. See http://cstl-cla.semo.edu/snell/books/student/ chap17.htm.
This form, adapted and first put into Tony Kidman's book Tactics for Change, contains 25 of the original 90 questions. For each question, clients are asked to rate their degree of anger on a scale of 1 to 4, with results indicating that anger is remarkably low, more peaceful than the average person, average amount of anger, more irritable than the average person, and anger is out of control. Self-administered or given by a counselor, Mills, Kroner, and Forth (1998) report validity and reliability coefficients of 78 to 91. See Novaco, R. W. (1975). Anger control: The development of an experimental treatment. Lexington, KY: Lexington. Also available from www.gu.edu.au/school/psy/testlibrary/tlcat_m-r.html.
Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (OCI)
A self-administered inventory developed by Foa, Kozak, Salkovskis, Coles, and Amir (1998), the OCI distinguishes between individuals who have obsessive-compulsive disorder and other anxiety disorders. it examines seven areas: washing, checking, doubting, ordering, obsessing, hoarding, and mental neutralizing. Each item is scored on a Likert scale of 0 to 4 for frequency, occurrence, and distress. No technical expertise is required to administer this test. Foa et al. (1998) report validity and a consistency reliability coefficients range of .86 to .95. See www.criminology.unimelb.edu.au/victims/resources /assessment/affect/oci.html.
Psychiatric Research Intervention for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM)
A clinician-administered interview developed by Deborah Hasin, the PRISM measures DSM-IV diagnoses of alcohol, drug, and psychiatric disorders. It provides information about experiences with drugs and alcohol and is useful in studying the effects of comorbidity on alcohol and drug treatment. it takes one to three hours to complete. Results have shown it to be reliable. See www.niaaa.nih.gov /publications/prism-text.htm.
Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R)
A measure of psychopathic personality disorder developed by Robert Hare (1998) explains that PCL-R predicts violent behavior. Consisting of 20 items, each of which reflects a different characteristic of psychopathic behavior, this test assesses an individual's lifetime functioning, not solely the person's present state. Reportedly the single best predictor of violent behavior currently available, it takes about two hours to complete and should be done by a trained interviewer. See www.hare.org/pclr and www.hare.org/pclr/index.html.
Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI)
Created by John Briere, the TSI is used to assess posttraumatic stress and other traumatic events, such as: rape, major accidents, natural disasters, early childhood trauma, spouse abuse, and combat trauma. The TSI is scored on a four-point scale about the frequency of occurrence over the previous 6 months. Self-administered, it is intended for those with at least a fifth-grade reading level. Briere's (1995) reports a high validity for the TSI. See www.parinc.com /product.cfm?ProductID=149 and http://aac.ncat.edu/newsnotes/y01spr.html.
recovery potential assessments
A self-administered test developed by AA, these questions give insight into the possibility of an alcohol addiction and help guide people in exploring the 12-step program. See http://home.vicnet.net.au/~csoaasa/20Questions.html.
Alcohol Timeline Followback (TLFB)
Developed by Linda Sobell and Mark Sobell, the TLFB estimates daily alcohol consumption by having clients use a calendar to record estimates of their daily drinking (and other drugs) over a specified period ranging from 30 to 360 days. A feedback tool to motivate clients to change, this instrument is self-administered in pencil-paper format and is scored by the interviewer or computer. Sobell, Maisto, Sobell, and Cooper (1979) report a high reliability among alcohol users. See www.camh.net/publications/clinical_tools_assessments.html.
AWARE Questionnaire (Advance WArning of RElapse-Revised)
A self-administered test designed by Terrance Gorski, the AWARE measures the warning signs of relapse. Higher scores indicate a higher number of warning signs being reported by the client. It takes about 20 minutes to complete. W. R. Miller, Westerberg, Harris, and Tonigan (1996) report validity and reliability scores. See
www.tgorski.com/relapse/AWARE_Relapse_Questionaire.pdf and http://casaa .unm.edu/inst/forms/Aware.pdf.
Structured Addictions Assessment Interview for Selecting Treatment (ASIST)
A self-reporting inventory developed at the Addiction Research Foundation in 1984 (www.camh.net), the ASIST examines dependence on alcohol and drugs, psychopathology, authoritarianism, intelligence quotient, and organicity. See www.csc-scc.gcca/text/rsrch/reports/r75/r75e_e.shtml#_Toc437159319.
Beck Codependence Assessment Scale (BCAS)
A 35-item, self-report scale created by William Beck, the BCAS measures codependence or enabling behaviors toward a dysfunctional significant other. The client identifies a set of diagnostic behaviors and cognitions that are typical of codependents. Taking about 10 minutes to complete, it is a summated score. Beck (1991) reports an internal consistency of .86. See the Alcohol and Substance Abuse Measurement Instrument Collection at www.utexas.edu/research/cswr/nida /Instrument%20Listing.htm.
Brown-Peterson Recovery Progress Inventory (BPRPI)
A 53-item self-administered inventory developed by H. P. Brown and Peterson (1991), BPRPI measures an individual's current level of functioning in a 12-step recovery program. Taking about 20 minutes to complete, it is scored by hand. See www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/bprpi.htm.
Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness Scales (CMR SCALES)
A 180-item self-report inventory developed by De Leon, Melnick, Kressel, and Jainchill (1994), the CMR use Likert scales to indicate external pressure to enter treatment, external pressure to leave treatment, motivation to change, and readiness for treatment. The test takes approximately minutes to complete, and no training is required. See www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/cmrs-text.htm.
Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment (CIWA)
An eight-item assessment tool developed by the American Medical Association, the CIWA measures the severity of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. It takes about 5 minutes to complete, and no training is required. Validity and reliability (.89) have been reported (Stuppaeck et al., 1994). See www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications /ciwa.htm and www.oqp.med.va.gov/cpg/SUD/SUD_CPG/ModuleA/app/A _App4.htm.
Comprehensive Drinker Profile (CDP)
A structured interview designed by Miller and Marlatt (1984), the CDP contains 88 gender specific questions that explore substance consumption, life problems, medical history, motivations for change, and self-efficacy. Recommended for use in treatment planning. A shorter version is available. Training is usually required to score this test. See www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/cdp-text.htm.
Computerized Lifestyle Assessment (CLA)
A 350-item instrument to assess lifestyle strengths as well as health-risk behaviors, the CLA examines a wide range of lifestyle activities and assesses the individual's interest or readiness for change. It includes components of the Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS), CAGE screening items, and Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST). Taking about one hour to complete, it is scored by computer. No training is required. Bungy, Pols, Mortimer, Frank, and Skinner (1989) report its validity. See www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/cla-text.htm.
Coping Responses Inventory (CRI)
Developed by Rudolf Moos, the CRI assesses present coping skills in dealing with stress. It includes eight scales: Approach Coping Styles (Logical Analysis, Positive Reappraisal, Seeking Guidance and Support, and Problem Solving) and Avoidant Coping Styles (Cognitive Avoidance, Acceptance or Resignation, Seeking Alternative Rewards, and Emotional Discharge). See www .parinc.com/product.cfm?ProductID=138 and www.parinc.com/relatedfiles /LISRES_CRI_bib.pdf.
Drinking Self-Monitoring Log (DSML)
A pencil and paper, self-administered tool created by Mark Sobell, the DSML is a personal journal that clients use to record their drinking patterns. Entries are made on a daily or drink-by-drink basis. in its simplest version, it collects information on the total number of drinks consumed each day and the type and time the beverage was consumed. Certain logs may also ask clients to indicate where the drinking occurred (i.e., at home, bar) and their emotional state at the time of drinking. See www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/dsml.htm.
Follow-Up Drinker Profile (FDP)
An 88-item instrument, the FDP is one of a "family" of structured interviews that also includes the Comprehensive Drinker Profile, and the Brief Drinker Profile. All assess client status during intake and follow-up sessions. Measures include motivation, drinking history, demographic information, and self-efficacy. It requires about 30 minutes to complete. See www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/fdp.htm.
92 PART III • TREATMENT PLANNING AND ASSESSMENT RESOURCES Individual Assessment Profile (IAP)
A clinical assessment tool developed by Flynn, Hubbard, and Luckey (1995) for treatment planning purposes, the IAP explores demographic background, reason for admission, living arrangements, smoking, alcohol and drug use, illegal activities, sources of support, and medical and mental health. Clients rate their concern and opinion of need on a 4-point scale in each specific area. The interviewer then rates each area as to need for treatment. See www.scottishexecutive.gov.uk /library5/health/dtap-27.asp.
Life Satisfaction Scale (LSS)
A 34-item self-report designed by E. Diener, the LSS measures an individual's life satisfaction as a whole, a global measure not limited to health or finances. Using Likert-type scoring, it takes about 10 minutes to complete. Pavot, Diener, Colvin, and Sandvik (1991) report validity and reliability. See www.sci-queri .research.med.va.gov/ swls.htm.
Recovery Attitude and Treatment Evaluator Questionnaire (RAATE)
Developed by New Standards, Inc. the RAATE assists in determining the appropriate level of care by measuring five areas: resistance to treatment, resistance to continuing care, severity of medical problems, severity of psychological problems, and social/environmental support. Training is required to score this test that takes approximately one hour to complete. M. B. Smith, Hoffmann, and Neder-hoed (1992) report validity and reliability (75 to 87). See www.niaaa.nih.gov /publications/raate.htm.
Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES)
Developed by W. R. Miller and Tonigan (1996), this instrument assesses a client's current state of change: taking steps, recognition, and ambivalence. It takes approximately 10 minutes to complete. For more information, see: www .niaaa.nih.gov/publications/socrates.htm.
A 42-item, self-administered instrument developed by Francis Gilbert, it measures an individual's attitudes and beliefs related to the first three of the 12 Steps in AA: a client's beliefs about powerlessness and unmanageability, the use of a Higher Power as a critical component in the recovery process, and the individual's willingness to turn over his or her life to a Higher Power to achieve sobriety. Taking approximately 20 minutes to complete, it requires no training. See www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/steps-text.htm.
• DUAL DIAGNOSES: PSYCHIATRIC ILLNESS WITH ADDICTION 93 Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RTCQ)
A 12-question measure developed by Heather, Gold, and Rollnick (1991), it assesses a client's readiness for change. Based on Prochaska and DiClemente's stages-of-change model, individuals are assigned to precontemplation, contemplation, or action stage of change. The RTCQ may be especially helpful for harmful drinkers who are not seeking treatment. No training is required to administer this measure. Heather, Rollnick, and Bell (1993) report consistency reliability coefficients of .93. See www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/rtcq.htm.
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This is common knowledge that disaster is everywhere. Its in the streets, its inside your campuses, and it can even be found inside your home. The question is not whether we are safe because no one is really THAT secure anymore but whether we can do something to lessen the odds of ever becoming a victim.