Advancedstage pure testicular teratoma

Approximately two thirds of patients with NSGCTs, including those with pure testicular teratomas, will present with advanced metastatic disease. This group of patients with pure testicular teratomas typically have had regression of other viable nonseminomatous germ-cell elements in the testis. Heidenreich and colleagues [18] reported that 80% of patients with advanced pure testicu-lar teratomas had evidence of scars or calcifications in the testicular parenchyma suggestive of a "burnt-out" tumor. Therefore, serum tumor markers are frequently elevated, and viable GCTs such as embryonal cell carcinoma or yolk sac tumor are frequently present in the metastatic sites. These patients are managed initially with chemotherapy according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) risk criteria, followed by postchemo-therapy RPLND (PC-RPLND). The postchemo-therapy histologic findings in the retroperitoneal specimen reveal fibrosis, teratoma, and viable GCT, in 44%, 50%, and 6% of patients, respectively [12]. Following the multidisciplinary management of advanced metastatic testicular teratoma, the disease-free survival rate is excellent with approximately 90% of patients remaining continuously free of disease [12,16].

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

How To Reduce Acne Scarring

Acne is a name that is famous in its own right, but for all of the wrong reasons. Most teenagers know, and dread, the very word, as it so prevalently wrecks havoc on their faces throughout their adolescent years.

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