Identification of abnormal cells

Microscopically, ITGCN cells are larger than normal spermatogonia and usually have a prominent irregular nucleus, distinct nucleoli, coarse clumps of chromatin, and abundant cytoplasm (Fig. 2) [8]. As the name suggests, these cells are

Fig. 1. Low power displaying prominent irregular nucleus, distinct nucleoli, coarse clumps of chromatin, and abundant cytoplasm.

found within the seminiferous tubules, located in a single row at the thickened basement membrane [9]. The tubular architecture is further distorted by having a decreased diameter with an absence of germ cells, making the Sertoli cell the only other cell type present. Tubules with ITGCN are often found in the testicular parenchyma surrounding the invasive cancer, appearing atrophic and with occasional microcalcifications [10]. Other findings associated with ITGCN are lymphocytic invasion, hyaline bodies, or Leydig cell hyperplasia [10].

Fig. 2. Higher power displaying prominent nucleoli, abundant cytoplasm, and abnormal spermatogonia.

Immunohistochemical staining for placental-like alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) is the most common method to detect ITGCN cells [11]. Regadera and colleagues [12] have recently published their findings suggesting that detection of PCPH onco-protein could be used as a good early marker to detect testicular neoplasms. They found that PCPH expression is substantially increased in human TGCTs, including ITGCN and could serve as a tool to aid in diagnosis.

0 0

Post a comment