Molecular analysis of late relapse

The chemotherapy resistance of GCT is an important biological and clinical problem at late relapse. A search for genetic mechanisms suggested that gene amplification may be associated with drug resistance [37]. More recently, KIT and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were found to be expressed in a significant proportion of refractory GCTs, either late-relapse tumors or transformed teratoma [38]. Sugimora and colleagues [39], using microarray technology with gene-expression profiling, identified a gene set that can differentiate patients with early- and late-relapse yolk-sac GCT. The most over expressed gene in the late-relapse group was a small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70-kD polypeptide.

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