[1] Boring CC, Squires TS, Tong T. Cancer statistics. CA Cancer J Clin 1993;43(1):7-26.

[2] Moul JW, Paulson DF, Dodge RK, et al. Delay in diagnosis and survival in testicular cancer: impact of effective therapy and changes during 18 years J Urol 1990;143:520.

[3] Weissbach L, Bruhl P, Vahlensieck W. Epidermiolo-gie und pravention des hodentumors. Munch Med Wochenschr 1974;116(18):957-8, German.

[4] Host H, Stokke T. The treatment of malignant testicular tumors at the Norwegian Radium Hospital. Cancer 1959;12:323.

[5] Patton JF, Hewitt CB, Mallis N. Diagnosis and treatment of tumors of the testis. JAMA 1959;171:2194.

Thompson IM, Wear J, Almond C, et al. An analytical survey of 178 testicular tumors. J Urol 1961;85: 173.

Bosl GJ, Goldman A, Lange PH, et al. Impact of delay in diagnosis on clinical stage of testicular cancer. Lancet 1981;2:970.

Kurohara SS, George FW, Dykhusen RF, et al. Tes-ticular tumors. Analysis of 196 cases treated at the US Naval Hospital in San Diego. Cancer 1967;20: 1089.

Borski AA. Diagnosis, staging, and natural history of testicular tumors. Cancer 1973;32:1202. Seib UC, Andres H, Sommerkamp H. Fehldiagnosen beim malignen hodentumor. Aktuelle Urol 1976;7: 302, German.

Ware SM, Al-Askari S, Morales P. Testicular germ cell tumors. Prognostic factors. Urology 1980;15:348. Dieckmann KP, Becker T, Bauer HW. Testicular tumors: presentation and role of diagnostic delay. Urol Int 1987;42:241.

Kulig JW. Self detection of testicular neoplasms [abstract]. J Adolesc Health Care 1981;2:171. Leyh H. Anamnese und tastbefun sind die basis der frith-diagnostic von hodentumoren. Med Klin 1984; 79:612, German.

Kuhne U, Andra J, Zacher W. Der maligne hodentumor: ein diagnostisches problem? Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena) 1979;73(6):276-9, German. Scher H, Bosl G, Geller N, et al. Impact of symptomatic interval on prognosis of patients with stage III testicular cancer. Urology 1983;21:559. Fischer F. Behandlungsergebnisse bei hodentumorpatienten der Jahrgange 1973-1981 inaugural. Munchen (Germany): Diss Urologische Klinik, Ludwig-Maximilians Universitat; 1983, German. Heising J. Anamnese. In: Weissbach H, editor. Register und verbundstudie fur odentumoen—Bonn. Munchen (Germany): Zuckschwerdt; 1982. p. 100-9, German.

Jones WG, Appleyard I. Delay in diagnosing testic-ular tumors. Br Med J 1985;290:1150. Thornhill JA, Fennelly JJ, Kelly DG, et al. Patients' delay in the presentation of testis cancer in Ireland. Br J Urol 1987;59:447.

Chilvers CED, Saunders M, Bliss JM, et al. Influence of delay in diagnosis on prognosis in testicular teratoma. Br J Cancer 1989;59:126. Nikzas D, Champion AE, Fox M. Germ cell tumors of testis: prognostic factors and results. Eur Urol 1990;18:242.

Post GJ, Belis JA. Delayed presentation of testicular tumors. South Med J 1980;73:33. Sandeman TF. Symptoms and early management of germinal tumors of the testis. Med J Aust 1979;2:281. Stephen RA. The clinical presentation of testicular tumors. Br J Urol 1962;34:448. Prout GR, Griffin PP. Testicular tumors: delay in diagnosis and influence on survival. Am Fam Physician 1984;29:205.

[27] Wishnow KI, Johnson DE, Preston W, et al. Prompt orchiectomy reduces morbidity and mortality from testicular carcinoma. Br J Urol 1990;65:629.

[28] Oliver RTD. Factors contributing to delay in diagnosis of testicular tumours. Br Med J 1985; 290:356.

[29] Fossa SD, Kupp O, Elgjo RF. The effect of patients' delay and doctors' delay in patients with malignant germ cell tumours. Int J Androl 1981;4:134-45.

[30] Meffan PJ, Delahunt B, Nacey JN. The value of early diagnosis in the treatment of patients with testicular cancer. N Z Med J 1991;104:393.

[31] Moul JW, Paulson DF, Walther PJ. Refusal of cancer treatment in testicular cancer patients. J Natl CancerInst 1989;81:1587.

[32] Beisser AR. Denial and affirmation in illness and health. Am J Psychiatry 1979;36:1026.

[33] Robson CJ, Bruce AW, Charbonneau J. Testicular tumors: a collective review from the Canadian Academy of Urological Surgeons. J Urol 1965;94:440.

[34] Czaplicki M, Rojewska J, Pykalo R, et al. Detection of testicular neoplasms by cytological examination of seminal fluid. J Urol 1987;138:787.

[35] Yu DS, Wang J, Chang SY, et al. Differential diagnosis of testicular mass by cytological examination of seminal fluid collected by ejaculation or prostatic massage. Eur Urol 1990;18:193.

[36] Moul JW, Moellman JR. Unnecessary mastectomy for gynecomastia in testicular cancer patient. Mil Med 1992;157:433.

[37] US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to clinical preventive services: an assessment of the effectiveness of 169 interventions. Baltimore (MD): Williams & Wilkins; 1989.

[38] Goldenring JM, Purtell E. Knowledge of testicular cancer risk and need for self-examination in college students: a call for equal time for men in teaching of early cancer detection techniques. Pediatrics 1984;74:1093-6.

[39] Javadpour N. Germ cell tumor of the testis. CA Cancer J Clin 1980;30:242-55.

[40] National Cancer Institute. Working guidelines for early cancer detection: rationale and supporting evidence to decrease mortality. Bethesda (MD): National Cancer Institute; 1987.

[41] Canadian Task Force on the Periodic Health Examination. The periodic health examination, 1984 update. Can Med Assoc J 1984;130:2.

[42] Moul JW, Schannel FJ, Thompson IM, et al. Testic-ular cancer in blacks: a multicenter experience. Cancer 1994;72:338.

[43] Conklin M, Klint K, Morway A, et al. Should health teaching include self-examination of the testes? Am J Nurs 1978;78:2073.

[44] Garnick MB, Mayer RJ, Richie JP. Testicular self-examination [letter]. N Engl J Med 1980;302: 297.

[45] Williams HA. Screening for testicular cancer. PediatrNurs 1981;7:38.

[46] Marty PJ, McDermott RJ. Teaching about testicular cancer and testicular self-examination. J Sch Health 1983;53:351-6.

[47] Cavanaugh DM. Genital self-examination in adolescent males. Am Fam Physician 1983;28:199.

[48] Anderson EE. Early diagnosis of testicular carcinoma: self-examination of the testicle. N C Med J 1985;46:407.

[49] Carlin PT. Testicular self-examination: a public awareness program. Public Health Rep 1986;101:98.

[50] Scott D. Testicular cancer: the case for self-examination. Postgrad Med 1986;80:175.

[51] Marty PJ, McDermott RJ. Three strategies for encouraging testicular self examination among college-aged males. J Am Coll Health 1986;34:253.

[52] Ramsey FB. Testicular self-examination. Indiana Med 1986;79:36.

[53] Friman PC, Finnery JW, Glasscock SG, et al. Testic-ular self-examination: validation of a training strategy for early cancer detection. J Appl Behav Anal 1986;19:87.

[54] Stanford T. Testicular self-examination: teaching, learning, and practice by nurses. J Adv Nurs 1987; 12:13.

[55] Walker R, Guyton R. Modeling and guarded practice as a component within a comprehensive testicu-lar self-examination cancer education program J Am Coll Health 1989;37:211.

[56] Neef N, Scutchfield FD, Elder J, et al. Testicular self-examination by young men: an analysis of characteristics associated with practice. J Am Coll Health 1991;39:187.

[57] American Cancer Society. For men only—testicular cancer and how to do testicular self-examination. New York: American Cancer Society; 1984.

[58] National Cancer Institute. Testicular self-examination. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 1986 Pub. no. DHHS(NIH) 87-2636.

[59] Westlake SJ, Frank JW. Testicular self-examination: an argument against routine teaching. Fam Pract 1987;4:143.

[60] Goldbloom RB. Self-examination by adolescents. Pediatrics 1985;76:126.

[61] Friman PC, Finney JW. Health education for testicular cancer. Health Educ Q 1990;17:443.

[62] Sheley JF, Kinchen EW, Morgan DH, et al. Limited impact of testicular self-examination promotion J Community Health 1991;16:117.

[63] Dachs RJ, Garb JL, White C, et al. Male college students' compliance with testicular self-examination J Adolesc Health Care 1989;10:295.

[64] Brubaker AG, Wickersham D. Encouraging the practice of testicular self-examination: a field application of the theory of reasoned action. Health Psychol 1990;9:154.

[65] Hongladarom T, Hongladarom G. The problem of testicular cancer: how health professionals in the Armed Services can help. Mil Med 1982;147:211.

[66] Vaz RM, Best DL, Davis SW, et al. Evaluation of a testicular cancer curriculum for adolescents J Pediatr 1989;114:150.

[67] Cummings KM, Lampone D, Mettlin C, et al. What young men know about testicular cancer. Prev Med 1983;12:326.

[68] Thornhill JA, Conroy RM, Kelly DG, et al. Public awareness of testicular cancer and the value of self-examination. Br Med J 1986;293:480.

[69] Blesch KS. Health beliefs about testicular cancer and self-examination among professional men. Oncol Nurs Forum 1986;13:29.

[70] Reno DR. Men's knowledge and health beliefs about testicular cancer and testicular self examination. Cancer Nurs 1988;11:112.

[71] Klein JF, Berry CC, Felice ME. The development of a testicular self-examination instructional booklet for adolescents. J Adolesc Health Care 1990; 11:235.

[72] Raghavan D. Towards the earlier diagnosis of testicular cancer. Aust Fam Physician 1990;19:865.

[73] Pendered L. Cancer of the testicle: an educational problem. Br J Gen Pract 1991;41:81.

[74] Singer AJ, Tichler T, Orvieto R, et al. Testicular carcinoma: a study of knowledge awareness, and practice of testicular self-examination in male soldiers and military physicians. Mil Med 1993;158: 640.

[75] Wardle J, Steptoe A, Burckhardt R, et al. Testic-ular self-examination: attitudes and practices among young men in Europe. Prev Med 1994; 23:206.

[76] Moul JW. Diagnosis delays impact on testicular cancer. American Urological Association Today 1990; 3(5 May): 1.

[77] Testicular self-examination. Daly City (CA): Krames Communications. Publication no. 940243-TSE, 2007.

Urol Clin N Am 34 (2007) 119-125

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

10 Ways To Fight Off Cancer

Learning About 10 Ways Fight Off Cancer Can Have Amazing Benefits For Your Life The Best Tips On How To Keep This Killer At Bay Discovering that you or a loved one has cancer can be utterly terrifying. All the same, once you comprehend the causes of cancer and learn how to reverse those causes, you or your loved one may have more than a fighting chance of beating out cancer.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment