Yaron Ehrlich MDa Jack Baniel MDa b

aDepartment of Urology, Rabin Medical Center-Beilinson Campus, Petah Tikva 49100, Israel bSackler Medical School, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel

The introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy for the treatment of testicular germ-cell tumors (GCTs) in the late 1970s transformed testicular cancer into a model of a curable neoplasm [1]. Its combination with surgery in men with advanced disease has led to a cure rate of approximately 80% [2]. Relapse occurs in about 10% of patients, mostly in the first 2 years after treatment [3,4].

Reports of late relapse, beyond 2 years, date back to the early 1970s [5]; however, the first to describe late relapse of GCT as a unique clinical entity were Einhorn and colleagues [6] from Indiana University. In the past decade, further data from Indiana University and other leading cancer centers have consistently shown that late-relapse GCT behaves differently from primary or early-relapse GCT in terms of tumor biology and response. The aim of the present review was to outline the clinical characteristics, tumor biology, and therapeutic outcome of late relapse.

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