A von Eckardstein and FCW Wu

Contents

10.1

Introduction

10.2

Relationships between serum levels of testosterone and cardiovascular

disease - observational studies

10.2.1

Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

10.2.2

Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in women

10.3

Effects of testosterone on cardiovascular disease - interventional

clinical studies

10.3.1

Endogenous androgen deprivation

10.3.2

Androgen excess from anabolic steroid abuse

10.3.3

Exogenous testosterone treatment in men with cardiovascular disease

10.3.4

Exogenous androgen treatment in women

10.4

Cardiovascular effects of testosterone in animal studies

10.4.1

Atherosclerosis

10.4.2

Myocardial function and heart failure

10.5

Effects of testosterone on cardiovascular risk factors

10.5.1

Associations of endogenous testosterone with cardiovascular risk factors

10.5.2

Effects of puberty on cardiovascular risk factors

10.5.3

Effects of exogenous testosterone on cardiovascular risk factors

10.5.3.1

Lipoproteins

10.5.3.2

The hemostatic system

10.5.3.3

Inflammation

10.5.3.4

Obesity and insulin sensitivity

10.6

Effects of testosterone on the function of vascular and cardiac cells

10.6.1

Vascular and cardiac expression of sex hormone receptors and testosterone

converting enzymes: implications for genomic and non-genomic effects

10.6.2

Effects oftestosterone on vascular reactivity

10.6.3

Effects of testosterone on endothelial cells

10.6.4

Effects of testosterone on arterial smooth muscle cell function

10.6.5

Effects oftestosterone on macrophage functions

10.6.6

Effects oftestosterone on platelet function

10.6.7

Effects of testosterone on cardiomyocytes

10.7

Lessons from genetic studies on the role of testosterone in atherosclerosis

10.7.1

Variation in the androgen receptor

10.7.2

Variation in the estrogen receptor

10.7.3

Variation in other genes

10.8 Clinical implications

10.9 Key messages

10.10 References

Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

Prevention is better than a cure. Learn how to cherish your heart by taking the necessary means to keep it pumping healthily and steadily through your life.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment