Correlational studies demonstrating the relationship of serum testosterone concentrations and muscle mass and function

Healthy, hypogonadal men have lower fat free mass (FFM) and higher fat mass when compared to age-matched eugonadal men (Katznelson et al. 1996; 1998). The age-associated decline in serum testosterone levels correlates with decreased appendicular muscle mass and reduced lower extremity strength in Caucasian as well as African-American men (Baumgartner etal. 1999; Melton etal. 2000; Morley et al. 1997; Roy et al. 2002). Similarly, epidemiological studies have demonstrated an inverse correlation between serum testosterone levels and waist-to-hip ratio and visceral fat mass assessed by CT scan. In a cohort of 511 men aged 30 to 79 years in 1972 to 1974, levels of androstenedione, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin measured at baseline were inversely related to subsequent central adiposity, estimated 12 years later using the waist-hip circumference ratio (Khaw and Barrett-Connor 1992). In another study, total and free testosterone concentrations were negatively correlated with waist/hip circumference ratio and visceral fat area and negatively associated with increased glucose, insulin, and C-peptide concentrations (Seidell etal. 1990). The correlation co-efficients were not high, suggesting that there are other important determinants of body composition besides testosterone.

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