Effects of testosterone replacement in older men with low testosterone levels

Several studies (Blackman etal. 2002; Ferrando etal. 1998; Kenny etal. 2001; 2002; Morley etal. 1993; Sih etal. 1997; Snyder etal. 1999a; 1999b; Steidle etal. 2003; Tenover 1992; 2000; Urban etal. 1995) have established that increasing testosterone levels of older men with low testosterone levels to levels that are mid-normal for healthy, young men is associated with a significant increase in lean body mass and a reduction in fat mass (Table 8.1). Although testosterone supplementation is associated with greater gains in grip strength compared to placebo treatment, it remains unclear whether physiologic testosterone replacement can produce meaningful changes in muscle performance and physical function. In a study by Snyder et al. (1999) testosterone treatment of older men did not increase muscle strength or improve physical function, but these men were not uniformly hypogonadal and were unusually fit for their age. In addition, their muscle strength was measured by a method (Biodex dynamometer) which did not demonstrate a response even in frankly hypogonadal younger men treated with testosterone (Snyder et al. 2000). It is possible that testosterone might improve muscle strength and physical function in older men with clearly low testosterone levels. These studies also emphasize the need to use muscle function tests that are androgen-responsive, and to control for the confounding influence of the learning effect. A major source of debate has been the lack of data demonstrating improvements in measures of physical function in older men. Finally, most of the previous studies of testosterone supplementation in older men have been conducted in healthy, older men; we do not know whether similar beneficial effects can be achieved in older men with sarcopenia or frailty.

Using Exercise To Get Rid Of Man Boobs

Using Exercise To Get Rid Of Man Boobs

In this guide, youll learn just what kinds of exercises you can use to get rid of man boobs forever. It includes two different types of exercises those designed to burn body fat, helping you lose excess weight all over your body and targeted chest exercises which will shrink your man boobs until you have a masculine, sexy chest.

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