M Zitzmann and E Nieschlag

Contents

7.1

Introduction

7.2

Mechanisms of androgen action in bone tissue

7.2.1

In vitro studies

7.2.2

Animal studies

7.2.3

Androgens and their relation to calcium regulatory hormones and IGF-1

7.2.4

Androgens and bone turnover in men

7.2.5

The role of estradiol as testosterone metabolite in bone metabolism

7.2.6

Relation of androgens to bone tissue in healthy men

7.3

Clinical aspects of bone density in relation to disorders of androgen action

7.3.1

Bone density in men with disorders of androgen action

7.3.2

Effects of androgen substitution on bone tissue

7.3.3

Additional modalities for therapy of androgen-related bone loss

7.4

Future research

7.5

Key messages

7.6

References

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