Mechanisms of androgen action within the erythropoietic system

First intervention trials concerning androgens and erythropoiesis were performed in intact rats which exhibited a marked increase of hemoglobin concentrations and bone marrow activity upon testosterone administration (Vollmer and Gordon 1941). These results were confirmed in orchiectomized or hypophysectomized animals in which the resulting anemia could be successfully treated by injections with testosterone propionate (Crafts 1946; Steinglass etal. 1941). These results led to clinical application in treatment of women with breast cancer-related anemia (Kennedy and Gilbertsen 1957). Recent reports about anemia caused by androgen deficiency in men such as observed in a large cohort of patients with secondary hypogonadism (Ellegala etal. 2003) and men receiving androgen-blockade therapy (Strum et al. 1997) are explained by these early studies. The mechanisms by which androgens facilitate these effects on erythropoiesis are discussed below.

Hair Loss Prevention

Hair Loss Prevention

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