Pluripotent stem cells as the target of androgen action

Because testosterone administration has reciprocal effects on muscle mass and fat mass, and increases satellite cell number, we considered the possibility that the target of androgen action might be a precursor cell from which muscle and fat cells are derived. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates body composition by promoting the commitment of mesenchymal pluripotent cells into myogenic lineage and inhibiting their differentiation into adipogenic lineage. To test this hypothesis, we treated pluripotent, mesenchymal C3H 10T1/2 cells with testosterone (0-300 nM) or dihydrotestosterone (0-30 nM) for 0-14 days (Singh et al. 2003). We evaluated myogenic conversion by immunochemical staining for early (MyoD) and late (myosin heavy chain II: MHC) myogenic markers, and measurements of MyoD and MHC mRNA and protein (Fig. 8.4). Adipogenic differentiation was assessed by adipocyte counting, and by measurements of PPAR7 2 mRNA, and PPAR7 2 and C/EBPa proteins. The number of MyoD+ myogenic cells and MHC+ myotubes, and MyoD and MHC mRNA and protein levels increased dose-dependently in response to testosterone and dihydrotestosterone treatment. Both testosterone and dihydrotestosterone decreased the number of adipocytes and downregulated the expression ofPPAR7 2 mRNA and PPAR7 2 and C/EBPa proteins. Androgen receptor (AR) mRNA and protein levels were low at baseline, but increased after testosterone or dihydrotestosterone treatment. The effects of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone on myogenesis and adipogenesis were blocked by bicalutamide. Hence, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone regulate lineage determination in mesenchymal pluripotent cells by promoting their commitment to the myogenic lineage and inhibiting their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage through an AR-mediated pathway (Singh etal. 2003). The observation that differentiation of pluripotent cells is androgen-dependent provides a

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Hair Loss Prevention

Hair Loss Prevention

The best start to preventing hair loss is understanding the basics of hair what it is, how it grows, what system malfunctions can cause it to stop growing. And this ebook will cover the bases for you. Note that the contents here are not presented from a medical practitioner, and that any and all dietary and medical planning should be made under the guidance of your own medical and health practitioners. This content only presents overviews of hair loss prevention research for educational purposes and does not replace medical advice from a professional physician.

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