S Bhasin TW Storer AB Singh L Woodhouse R Singh J Artaza WE Taylor I Sinha Hikim R Jasuja and N Gonzalez Cadavid

Contents

8.1

Historical aspects of the anabolic steroid controversy

8.2

Evidence that testosterone has direct anabolic effects on the mammalian

skeletal muscle

8.2.1

Correlational studies demonstrating the relationship of serum testosterone concentrations and

muscle mass and function

8.2.2

The effects of lowering endogenous testosterone concentrations on body composition

8.2.3

The effects of physiologic testosterone replacement in healthy, young hypogonadal men

8.2.4

The effect of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on body composition

and muscle strength

8.3

Testosterone dose-response relationships in men

8.4

Testosterone effects on muscle performance

8.5

Mechanisms of testosterone's anabolic effects on the muscle: pluripotent stem cell as the target

of androgen action

8.5.1

Testosterone effects on muscle histomorphometry

8.5.2

Muscle protein synthesis as the target of androgen action

8.5.3

Pluripotent stem cells as the target of androgen action

8.5.4

The role of 5a-reduction and aromatization of testosterone in the muscle

8.6

Potential clinical application of the anabolic effects of androgens

8.6.1

Effects of testosterone replacement in older men with low testosterone levels

8.6.2

Why have previous studies of testosterone replacement in older men failed to demonstrate

significant improvements in physical function?

8.6.3

Effects of androgen replacement on body composition and muscle function in sarcopenia

associated with chronic illnesses

8.7

Testosterone effects on fat metabolism

8.8

Key messages

8.9

References

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