References

P., Silver, D., & Glickman, I. (1990). Concept availability in the causal inferences of children and adults. Child Development, 61, 230-246. Andrews, G., & Halford, G. S. (1998). Children's ability to make transitive inferences The importance of premise integration and structural complexity. Cognitive Development, 13, 479513. Andrews, G., & Halford, G. S. (2002). Acomplex-ity metric applied to cognitive development. Cognitive Psychology, 45, 153-219. Andrews, G., Halford,...

Inferences from Observing Motion in Space

To ensure effective survival, in addition to perceiving the world as it is we need to also anticipate the world that will be. This entails inference - inferences from visuospatial information. Some common inferences, such as determining where to intersect a flying object - in particular, a fly ball (e.g., McBeath, Shaffer, & Kaiser, 1995) - or what moving parts belong to the same object (e.g., Spelke, Vishton, & von Hofsten, 1995) are beyond the scope of the chapter. From simple, abstract...

Multicomponent Working Memory Model

While exploring the issues described in the previous section, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model that expanded short-term memory into the modern concept of working memory - a term that has been used in several different contexts in psychology.1 Baddeley (1986) defined working memory as a system for the temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning (Ref. 3, p. 34). In a recent...

Early Research on Medical Problem Solving and Reasoning

Medical cognition is a subfield of cognitive science devoted to the study of cognitive processes in medical tasks. Studies of medical cognition include analyses of performance in real world clinical tasks as well as in experimental tasks. Understanding the thought processes involved in clinical reasoning in order to promote more effective practices has been the subject of concern for nearly a century (Osler, 1906). Human information processing research typically has focused on the individual....

Defining Thought Disorder

Perhaps the most common usage of the term thought disorder, at least within clinical settings, is as shorthand for formal thought disorder, which refers to a taxonomy of symptoms involving abnormal speech (An-dreasen, 1979, 1982). In this usage, thought disorder is typically conceptualized as the product of a loosening of associations leading to a loss of continuity between ordered elements inferred to underlie a spoken utterance (Maher, 1 991). The formal distinction, specifically with respect...

Hemsleys and Grays Model

A model with properties analogous to aspects of the model developed by Cohen and colleagues, but with important incongruities as well, has developed in a body of publications authored by Hemsley, Gray, and colleagues over the past two decades (Gray, 1982 Gray, 1995 Gray, 1998 Gray et al., 1991 Hemsley, 1987 Hemsley, 1993 Hemsley, 1994 Weiner, 1990). As summarized most recently by Gray (1998), this model of disordered information processing in schizophrenia involves a disruption in the processes...

Approaches to Intelligence

Psychometric Approaches to Intelligence Psychologists interested in the structure of intelligence have relied on factor analysis as an indispensable tool for their research. Factor analysis is a statistical method for separating a construct - intelligence in this case -into a number of hypothetical factors or abilities the researchers believe to form the basis of individual differences in test performance. The specific factors derived, of course, still depend on the specific questions being...

Ex cogito Dementia

As the foregoing discussion illustrates, current cognitive models of thought disorder have many merits, not the least of which is the ability to predict patient performance data in a variety of experimental cognitive tasks. In addition, these models converge with descriptive analyses of the experience of thought disorder in patients with psychotic disorders. Yet the parsimony that these models gain in attributing context-processing deficits in thought-disordered patients to a disturbance in a...

Language Is Sketchy Thought Is Rich

There are several reasons to believe that thought processes are not definable over representations that are isomorphic to linguistic representations. One is the pervasive ambiguity of words and sentences. Bat, bank, and bug all have multiple meanings in English and are associated with multiple concepts, but these concepts themselves are clearly distinct in thought, as shown inter alia by the fact that one may consciously construct a pun. Moreover, several linguistic expressions including...

Objects and Substances

The problem of reference to stuff versus objects has attracted considerable attention because it starkly displays the indeterminacy in how language refers to the world (Chomsky, 1957 Quine, 1960). Whenever we indicate a physical object, we necessarily indicate some portion of a substance as well the reverse is also true. Languages differ in their expression of this distinction (Lucy & Gaskins, 2001). Some languages make a grammatical distinction that roughly distinguishes object from...

Overview of Cognitive Models of Thought Disorder

The first major psychological discussion of the pathology of thought disorder was provided by Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist and theorist contemporary to both Sigmund Freud, founder of modern clinical psychology, and Wilhelm Wundt, often cited as the founder of modern experimental psychology. Based on his observation of patients with psychotic disorders (i.e., psychiatric disorders manifesting both severe reality distortion symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, and a significant...

The Challenge of Creating Cultures of Thinking

Thus far, we've examined four challenges that efforts to teach thinking traditionally have faced. As teachers and program developers seek to meet those challenges, a host of additional concerns arise for example How do we provide enough time, context, and diverse applications so that new patterns of thinking actually take hold How can we best take into account that school learning happens in a social context within a classroom among a group of individuals Is the development of individual...