The Challenge of Attending to Thinking Dispositions

We discussed earlier how approaches to teaching thinking needed to address the question What is good thinking In a sense, that question was incomplete. Good thinkers, after all, are more than people who simply think well when they think They also think at the right times with the right commitments - to truth and evidence, creativity and perspective taking, sound decisions, and apt solutions. Views of thinking that bring this to the fore are often called dispositional because they look not just...

Levelts Model of Normal Speech Production

To provide an organizing framework for our consideration of models relevant to formal thought disorder, we turn first to a model of normal speech production. Levelt (Levelt, 1989, 1999 Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) described such a model particularly useful here because of its comprehensive incorporation of diverse cognitive processes critical for effective interpersonal communication. As shown in Figure 21.1, Levelt's model involves a serial process by which a message intended for...

The Roles of Analogy in Scientific Thinking

One of the most widely mentioned reasoning processes used in science is analogy. Scientists use analogies to form a bridge between what they already know and what they are trying to explain, understand, or discover. In fact, many scientists have claimed that the use of certain analogies was instrumental in their making a scientific discovery, and almost all scientific autobiographies and biographies feature an important analogy that is discussed in depth. Coupled with the fact that there has...

Decisional Conflict

One way to avoid conflict in choice is to opt for what appears to be no choice at all, namely, the status quo. In one example (Tversky & Shafir, 1992 a), participants who were purportedly looking to buy a CD player were presented with a Sony player that was on a 1 -day sale for 99, well below the list price. Two-thirds of the participants said they would buy such a CD player. Another group was presented with the same Sony player and also with a top-of-the-line Aiwa player for 159. In the...

Shifted Vantage Point

Changing the level of abstraction is closely related to, but different from, the process that we in normal parlance call change of perspective. A classic study by Anderson and Pichert (1978) demonstrates that this phrase does not merely refer to a metaphor but to a concrete psychological process. They gave subjects a text to read that described a home. They instructed subjects to take the perspective of either a burglar or a prospective home buyer. The results showed that the instructions led...

Learning and Inference with Schemas and Analogies LISA

Similar to ACME, the LISA model (Hummel & Holyoak, 1997, 2003) is based on the principles of the multicon-straint theory of analogy unlike ACME, LISA operates within psychologically and neurally realistic constraints on working memory (see Doumas & Hummel, Chap. 4 Morrison, Chap. 19). The models discussed previously include at most localist representations of the meaning of concepts (e.g., a semantic network in the case of ARCS), and most of their processing is performed on propositional...

Creativity and Problem Solving

We began our exploration of implicit, unconscious process in human thought with the simpler functions of perception and memory. We'll end with a quick look at the more complex topics of problem solving and creativity (see Novick & Bassok, Chap. 14 Sternberg et al., Chap. 15). Although there hasn't been much recent study of unconscious influence on these functions, the notion that tacit knowledge affects the creative process was a central theme in the Gestalt approach (Kohler, 1925...

Steven A Sloman David A Lagnado

In its classic formulation, due to Hume (1739, 1748), inductive reasoning is an activity of the mind that takes us from the observed to the unobserved. From the fact that the sun has risen every day thus far, we conclude that it will rise again tomorrow from the fact that bread has nourished us in the past, we conclude that it will nourish us in the future. The essence of inductive reasoning lies in its ability to take us beyond the confines of our current evidence or knowledge to novel...

Lila Gleitman Anna Papafragou

Possessing a language is one of the central features that distinguishes humans from other species. Many people share the intuition that they think in language and the absence of language therefore would be the absence of thought. One compelling version of this self-reflection is Helen Keller's (1955) report that her recognition of the signed symbol for 'water' triggered thought processes that had theretofore - and consequently - been utterly absent. Statements to the same or related effect come...

References

Breakdown of will. New York Cambridge University Press. American Lung Association. (2003). What are the benefits of quitting smoking Available Arkes, H. R. (1991). Costs and benefits of judgment errors Implications for debiasing. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 486-498. Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 35, 124-140. Arrow, K. J. (1951). Alternative approaches to the theory of choice in...

Inferences from Observing Motion in Space

To ensure effective survival, in addition to perceiving the world as it is we need to also anticipate the world that will be. This entails inference - inferences from visuospatial information. Some common inferences, such as determining where to intersect a flying object - in particular, a fly ball (e.g., McBeath, Shaffer, & Kaiser, 1995) - or what moving parts belong to the same object (e.g., Spelke, Vishton, & von Hofsten, 1995) are beyond the scope of the chapter. From simple, abstract...

Multicomponent Working Memory Model

Working Memory Model Baddeley 2000

While exploring the issues described in the previous section, Baddeley and Hitch (1974) proposed a model that expanded short-term memory into the modern concept of working memory - a term that has been used in several different contexts in psychology.1 Baddeley (1986) defined working memory as a system for the temporary holding and manipulation of information during the performance of a range of cognitive tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning (Ref. 3, p. 34). In a recent...

Early Research on Medical Problem Solving and Reasoning

Medical cognition is a subfield of cognitive science devoted to the study of cognitive processes in medical tasks. Studies of medical cognition include analyses of performance in real world clinical tasks as well as in experimental tasks. Understanding the thought processes involved in clinical reasoning in order to promote more effective practices has been the subject of concern for nearly a century (Osler, 1906). Human information processing research typically has focused on the individual....

Defining Thought Disorder

Perhaps the most common usage of the term thought disorder, at least within clinical settings, is as shorthand for formal thought disorder, which refers to a taxonomy of symptoms involving abnormal speech (An-dreasen, 1979, 1982). In this usage, thought disorder is typically conceptualized as the product of a loosening of associations leading to a loss of continuity between ordered elements inferred to underlie a spoken utterance (Maher, 1 991). The formal distinction, specifically with respect...

Hemsleys and Grays Model

A model with properties analogous to aspects of the model developed by Cohen and colleagues, but with important incongruities as well, has developed in a body of publications authored by Hemsley, Gray, and colleagues over the past two decades (Gray, 1982 Gray, 1995 Gray, 1998 Gray et al., 1991 Hemsley, 1987 Hemsley, 1993 Hemsley, 1994 Weiner, 1990). As summarized most recently by Gray (1998), this model of disordered information processing in schizophrenia involves a disruption in the processes...

Approaches to Intelligence

Psychometric Approaches to Intelligence Psychologists interested in the structure of intelligence have relied on factor analysis as an indispensable tool for their research. Factor analysis is a statistical method for separating a construct - intelligence in this case -into a number of hypothetical factors or abilities the researchers believe to form the basis of individual differences in test performance. The specific factors derived, of course, still depend on the specific questions being...

Ex cogito Dementia

As the foregoing discussion illustrates, current cognitive models of thought disorder have many merits, not the least of which is the ability to predict patient performance data in a variety of experimental cognitive tasks. In addition, these models converge with descriptive analyses of the experience of thought disorder in patients with psychotic disorders. Yet the parsimony that these models gain in attributing context-processing deficits in thought-disordered patients to a disturbance in a...

Language Is Sketchy Thought Is Rich

There are several reasons to believe that thought processes are not definable over representations that are isomorphic to linguistic representations. One is the pervasive ambiguity of words and sentences. Bat, bank, and bug all have multiple meanings in English and are associated with multiple concepts, but these concepts themselves are clearly distinct in thought, as shown inter alia by the fact that one may consciously construct a pun. Moreover, several linguistic expressions including...

Referenves Related To Thinking And Reasoning

Conceptual blockbusting A guide to better ideas (2 nd ed.). New York Norton. Adelson, B. (1981). Problem solving and the development of abstract categories in programming languages. Memory and Cognition, 9,422433. Alibali, M. W., Bassok, M., Solomon, K. O., Syc, S. E., & Goldin-Meadow, S. (1999). Illuminating mental representations through speech and gesture. Psychological Science, 1 0, 327-333. Allard, F., & Starkes, J. L. (1991 ). Motor-skill experts in sports,...

Objects and Substances

The problem of reference to stuff versus objects has attracted considerable attention because it starkly displays the indeterminacy in how language refers to the world (Chomsky, 1957 Quine, 1960). Whenever we indicate a physical object, we necessarily indicate some portion of a substance as well the reverse is also true. Languages differ in their expression of this distinction (Lucy & Gaskins, 2001). Some languages make a grammatical distinction that roughly distinguishes object from...

Overview of Cognitive Models of Thought Disorder

The first major psychological discussion of the pathology of thought disorder was provided by Eugen Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist and theorist contemporary to both Sigmund Freud, founder of modern clinical psychology, and Wilhelm Wundt, often cited as the founder of modern experimental psychology. Based on his observation of patients with psychotic disorders (i.e., psychiatric disorders manifesting both severe reality distortion symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions, and a significant...

The Challenge of Creating Cultures of Thinking

Thus far, we've examined four challenges that efforts to teach thinking traditionally have faced. As teachers and program developers seek to meet those challenges, a host of additional concerns arise for example How do we provide enough time, context, and diverse applications so that new patterns of thinking actually take hold How can we best take into account that school learning happens in a social context within a classroom among a group of individuals Is the development of individual...