Natural Treatment to get rid of Tonsillitis
Peritonsillar abscess, or quinsy, is the most common deep neck infection. Although most occur in young adults, immune compromised and diabetic patients are at increased risk. Most abscesses develop as a complication of tonsillitis or pharyngitis, but they can also result from odontogenic spread, recent dental procedures, and local mucosal trauma. They recur in 10 to 15 of patients. The pathogens involved are similar to those causing tonsillitis, especially streptococcal species, but many infections are polymicrobial and involve anaerobic bacteria. Patients present with a fever, severe sore throat that is often out of proportion to physical findings, localization of symptoms to one side of the throat, trismus, drooling, dysphagia, dysphonia, fetid breath, and ipsilateral ear pain.
Viral agents cause the majority of sore throats. Even when exudates are present, less than 15 of children and 10 of adults have documented group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) as the cause. In children younger than 3 years, the predominance of a viral cause is even higher than in school-age children. Pharyngitis caused by GABHS (Streptococcus pyogenes) has its peak incidence in late winter and early spring. The incubation phase is 2 to 5 days and leads to sudden onset of sore throat, painful swallowing, fever, and chills. Less frequent symptoms include headache, abdominal pain, and nausea. On physical examination, a purulent white exudate is often seen on the tonsils, and the anterior cervical nodes are tender and enlarged. There is sometimes a scarlet fever rash (a diffuse, erythematous, macular, rough rash that tends to coalesce) and soft palate petechiae. Scarlet fever is the result of exotoxin-pro-ducing strains of GABHS. Pastia's lines are caused by prominence of the rash...
A peritonsillar abscess is the accumulation of pus in the peritonsillar space that surrounds the tonsil. The same organisms responsible for common tonsillar infections Streptococcus and Staphylococcus species and anaerobes are also found in peritonsillar abscesses. The typical signs and symptoms of peritonsillar abscess include fever, sore throat for 3 to 5 days, dysphagia, odynophagia, and a muffled, hot potato voice. Trismus is extremely common. Examination confirms asymmetric tonsils and peri-tonsillar edema and erythema. The soft palate and uvula are swollen and displaced away from the side of the abscess. It is often difficult to distinguish between abscess and peritonsillar cellulitis. If possible, it is helpful to palpate because fluctuance indicates a loculation of pus. Diagnosis is often made by clinical impression, but computed tomography (CT) can be confirmatory and useful when the diagnosis is uncertain (Fig. 19-1). If untreated, a peritonsillar abscess may spontaneously...
There is always a controversy as to whether local or general anesthesia is preferable or safer for tonsillectomy. This chapter is not the place for answering that question. Only the technique of providing regional anesthesia is described here. Agren and colleagues evaluated 38 patients randomly assigned for tonsillectomy with either local or general anesthesia.1241 The parameters compared were time in the operating room, duration of the operation, perioperative hemorrhage, number of ligatures required for hemostasis, postoperative hemorrhage, infection, and weight loss. Postoperative discomfort was assessed with a visual analogue scale and a water drinking test. The total consumption of analgesic drugs in the postoperative period was recorded. The authors showed that tonsillectomy under local anesthesia, in suitable patients, is a safe alternative to tonsillectomy under general anesthesia, and that considerable resources can be saved if the operation is performed with local anesthesia.
Up to 80 of patients complain of sore throat after anaesthesia and surgery. Some of the common causes include Trauma to the pharynx. This may occur during passage of a nasogastric tube or insertion of an oropharyngeal or laryngeal mask airway, and is particularly common when a throat pack has been used. Occasionally, the pharynx or upper oesophagus may be perforated during insertion of a nasogastric tube, or during difficult tracheal intubation, and severe pain in the throat is often the first symptom. Sore throat is likely if a nasogastric tube remains in situ during the postoperative period. Other factors. The mucous membranes of the mouth, pharynx and upper airway are sensitive to the effects of unhumidified gases the drying effect of anaesthetic gases may cause postoperative sore throat. The antisialagogue effect of anticholinergic drugs may also contribute to this symptom. The use of topical local anaesthetics does not reduce the incidence of sore throat. Lubrication of the...
Thesia staff in a facility where this type of patient is routinely cared for. Studies show that the occasional pediatric surgeon has substantially higher complication rates, including death, than the surgeon who regularly performs surgery on children.2 It has been shown that surgeons who perform procedures on children as simple as a hernia repair have higher complication rates than surgeons who are specialists in pediatric surgery.3 There are also differences in mortality between institutions that specialize in pediatric care and hospitals that do not specialize in pediatric patients even for procedures as common as a tonsillectomy.4
This statement is often heard by freshmen as they are ushered into medical school 1 , but it probably rings true for students in nursing, dentistry, midwifery, physical therapy and other allied medical professions as well. A lot of truth dwells in these words. Just a few years ago, we thought that enlarged tonsils had to be removed, pregnant mothers had to be shaved before delivery and vitamin C enhanced immunity to respiratory tract infections. These were non-debatable bits of 'knowledge' then. Today, they are nothing more than sombre testimony to the fallibility of the human mind. Our problem is not healthcare education per se. Our problem is progress. Science evolves so fast that what we know now will quickly be outdated if we don't keep up with the literature.
The LMA is not a sufficiently secure airway for all cases or completely free of side effects. The LMA can still cause a sore throat the LMA does not protect against aspiration pneumonia the way a cuffed endotracheal tube can. Ventilation cannot be controlled as precisely or as reliably with the LMA as can be done with the endotracheal tube. Although it is a revolutionary airway device that is quite useful, the LMA has not replaced the need for the endotracheal tube.
Most often there are no complications associated with the placement and use of an endotracheal tube. Sometimes during insertion of the endotracheal tube, you may have minor trauma to your lip (fat lip) or teeth (chipped tooth). If you have preexisting dental disease, unusual airway anatomy, or you bite down hard while the endotracheal tube is in place, you could suffer more extensive dental damage, such as a dislodged tooth. Sore throat is probably the most common complaint. Typically, this is mild and resolves itself within twelve to twenty-four hours without any therapy. Vocal-cord damage is very uncommon, and if it does occur, it usually resolves spontaneously over a matter of days or weeks. The endotracheal tube can be an airway irritant to you if you have significant
Applying small drops of sweet, sour, bitter, and salty tasting stimuli (with water rinses between applications) to the fungiform papillae on the front of the tongue (which are innervated by the chorda tympani division of CN VII) and on the circumvallate papillae at the rear of the tongue (CN IX) can be useful in identifying regional deficits and damage to specific nerves involved in taste perception. Iatrogenic factors, such as tonsillectomy, can damage CN IX fibers and produce taste distortions, whereas alterations in CN VII function (i.e., the chorda tympani nerve) can be caused by middle ear infections. Local factors (e.g., dryness, inflammation, edema, atrophy, abnormal surface texture, leukoplakia, erythoplasia, exudate, erosion, and ulceration) can influence taste function through a variety of means (e.g., gastric reflux), as can poor oral health and the use of smokeless tobacco. y
A typical family physician sees a patient every 15 minutes and addresses three separate problems during the visit (Bea-sley et al., 2004). Busy clinicians operating in such an environment must make snap decisions regarding patient care. Ethnographic studies of actual physician decision making in primary care offices indicate that physicians rely on mind-lines to guide them (Gabbay and le May, 2004). Physicians develop these mindlines as a preconceived, conceptualized, and standardized approach to a particular clinical scenario. For example, for a child with fever and tonsillar exudates, one physician's mindline may be to treat with penicillin, and another physician's mindline may be to obtain a culture and treat if the results are positive for Streptococcus. The foundation of these mindlines is the tacit knowledge physicians acquire during their early training. For example, the best predictor of a clinician's knowledge about hypertension treatment is his or her year of graduation from...
Although there are an infinite number and variety of complications that can occur in association with the administration of anesthesia, most are minor and transient. The vast majority of anesthesia complications will require no specific therapy nor will they interfere with your recovery. It is difficult to estimate the true incidence of complications associated with anesthesia, because most are of such minor nature that they aren't reported. For example, there is no reporting mechanism for a bruised lip or a sore throat from inserting an airway device. These are relatively common complications that lead to no significant harm or debility in the vast majority of patients.
Minor complications are the most frequent of complications associated with anesthesia. The most common of these are backache and headache, dental damage, minor eye injury, inability to reverse the effects of anesthesia drugs, nausea and vomiting, and sore throat. You may experience a sore throat after anesthesia regardless of what type of airway device was used during the surgery. If you do experience a sore throat, it is usually mild and resolves within twelve to twenty-four hours without any specific treatment.
The diseases of the tongue discussed in the texts cannot be clearly divided into glossitis and epithelio-mata, and many symptoms were taken to be disease entities in themselves. Diseases of the throat are generally termed Kantharoga. Among those that appear to be discussed are diphtheria, peritonsillar abscess, carcinoma of the base of the tongue, laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer, acute stomatitis, and chronic laryngitis.
In a properly managed safe system of work, acute exposure to chlorine will not occur. However, should there be an incident in which there is a release the immediate symptoms following inhalation of chlorine include a burning sensation in the eyes and nose, sore throat, cough, chest tightness, headache, fever, wheeze, fast heart rate, and confusion. Sufficient exposure may induce reflex cholinergic bronchoconstriction, with associated signs of coughing, wheezing, and dyspnoea (HPA 2011). Exposure to a sufficiently high dose may result in pulmonary oedema and respiratory failure, the onset of which may be delayed by up to 36 hours. There is some evidence to suggest that exposure to chlorine may be associated with long-term neuropsychological changes (Dilks and Matzenbacher 2003), although further studies are required to confirm this hypothesis. A summary of the acute effects of chlorine exposure by concentration is given in Table 8.1.
Approximately 20 of all visits to primary care physicians are related to problems of the oral cavity and throat. Most patients with these problems present with throat pain, which may be acute and associated with fever or difficulty in swallowing. A sore throat may be the result of local disease, or it may be an early manifestation of a systemic problem.
Reactive lymph nodes from a viral infection should be treated expectantly, whereas bacterial infections such as streptococcal tonsillitis or pharyngitis should be treated with appropriate antibiotics. In some cases, inflamed lymph nodes can suppurate and become abscessed, requiring incision and drainage. Masses thought to be reactive lymph nodes not responding to conservative management (antibiotics) often need referral for further evaluation to obtain a definitive diagnosis.
Possible cause and action Inflammation of the throat (pharyngitis) and or tonsils (tonsillitis) is likely. The inflammation is due to a bacterial or viral infection. Your doctor will examine your child and may prescribe antibiotics. In addition, try self-help measures for soothing your child's sore throat (below). SELF-HELP Soothing your child's sore throat If your child has a sore throat, the following Possible cause Inflammation of the throat as a result of a minor viral infection or irritation is the likely cause of your child's sore throat. action Follow the self-help measures for soothing your child's sore throat (left). Consult your doctor if your child is no better within a few days.
The influenza virus poses a particular threat to the pregnant patient. The majority of pregnant women with novel influenza A (H1N1) or the regular seasonal influenza virus infection will present with typical acute upper respiratory, influenza-like illness (e.g., cough, sore throat, rhinorrhea) and fever. Other symptoms can include body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Most pregnant women have an uncomplicated disease course. However, pregnant women appear to be at higher risk for severe complications from influenza infection, and for some, illness might progress rapidly and may be complicated by secondary bacterial infections, including pneumonia and evidence of fetal distress. Case reports of adverse pregnancy outcomes and maternal deaths have been associated with severe illness and death. Ideally, pregnant women who have suspected novel influenza A (H1N1) virus infection should be tested for influenza, although commercially available rapid-testing kits have limited...
Heterozygous and homozygous deficiency of MBL has been shown to be associated with several types of immunodeficiencies. A primary immunodeficiency characterized by defective yeast opsonization was described 20 years before the molecular defect that was identified as the codon 54 mutation in the MBL (3,4). Many studies have now been published, including two large studies that included 229 and 345 children with unknown primary immunodeficiencies (5,6), which have demonstrated significant associations for both homozygous and heterozygous MBL mutations with increased risk of infection. In the largest study, of the 17 homozygous MBL deficient patients identified, 13 presented with severe infections including septicemia, cellulitis and boils, severe tonsillitis, and otitis media. Homozygous MBL mutations have also been reported to be a factor in susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and avium, Trypanosoma cruzi, Klebsiella, Ctyptococcus neoformans, other fungal infections, hepatitis...
Common in children between the ages of five years and fifteen years. It is caused by bacteria known as streptococcus and is usually related to a severe type of sore throat sometimes called a strep throat. Most people who have strep throats do not develop rheumatic fever, and appropriate treatment with antibiotics dramatically decreases the risk of developing rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever usually occurs from two weeks to a month after the strep throat infection.
About 8 days before admission he developed a sore throat and fever. Two days before hospitalization he noted dark urine almost the color of reddish ale. He had been previously well and had been on university sports teams. He now worked as a journalist. He had had no serious past illnesses. He had many girlfriends and had been sexually active with a number of partners, some of whom he picked up in bars. He never had taken cocaine or other drugs and did not drink excessively. His mother had systemic lupus erythematosis. His father had hypertension, well controlled with medications.
Clinical algorithms are step-by-step written protocols for health management 80 . They consist of an explicit description of steps to be taken in patient care in specified circumstances 12 . What diagnostic and therapeutic steps should be taken to properly treat a sore throat How should a case of multiple trauma in (and en route to) an emergency room be managed Clinical algorithms are a specific category of algorithms in general. Algorithm is defined as 'an alteration'. It is derived from arithmetic, and algorism, from edictal Latin algorismus, the latter derived from the Arabic Al-Khuwarizmi, system of numerals, identified by the name of Al-Khuwarizmi, a ninth-century Persian mathematician 81 . It is 'a set of rules for approaching the solution to a complex problem by setting down individual steps and delineating how each step follows from the preceding one' 82 . Its character as a 'uniform procedure' 82 and a 'finite number of steps' for a solution of a given specific problem 83 are...
Group A streptococci produce several common illnesses. Streptococcal pharyngitis presents a clinical picture of fever, headache, sore throat, and abdominal discomfort. Before therapy with penicillin, the disease was often self-limited, but in certain cases the streptococci could disseminate to other ana
Infiltration of pharyngeal tissue associated with obesity mucopolysaccharidoses, and mucosal edema and inflammation Structural lesions such as enlarged tonsils and adenoids and pharyngeal tumors For patients who cannot tolerate CPAP or prefer not to use it, a number of other treatments may be used. Removal of enlarged tonsils and adenoids is often successful in children and sometimes in adults. Uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPP) with removal of the uvula, portions of the soft palate, and redundant pharyngeal tissue eliminates snoring in more than 80 percent and produces improvement of OSA in about 50 percent of patients, but complete resolution of sleep apnea is uncommon. Laser-assisted UPP is a staged outpatient procedure that eliminates snoring in about 60 percent of patients but is probably less effective for OSA than standard UPP. Maxillofacial surgery, with advancement of the mandible, the maxilla, or both, appears to be beneficial for selected patients. Orthodontic appliances that...
When your sinuses are inflamed, it feels like your whole face hurts. If you tap on your forehead or just under your eyes and feel pain, you probably have an infection. You may also experience further unwanted symptoms such as low-grade fever, headache (often described as splitting ) difficulty breathing through your nose, loss of smell, and yellow or green nasal discharge. (Yum, yum.) Unfortunately, that gunk may also be draining down your throat, creating a sore throat, nausea, snoring, or a cough.
Clinical infectious mononucleosis is a common infection in adolescents and early adults. The clinical syndrome is most often caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), although cytomegalovirus (CMV) may also be the source in this clinical syndrome, which includes fever, exudative tonsillitis, adenopathy (often including posterior cervical or occipital nodes), and fatigue. EBV is transmitted in oral secretions and may be transmitted sexually as well. B cells are infected with EBV either directly or after contact with epithelial cells, resulting in diffuse lymphoid enlargement.
Scarlet fever manifests as erythematous macules and papules that result from an erythrogenic toxin produced by group A 13-hemolytic Streptococcus. The most common site for invasion by this organism is the pharynx and occasionally skin or perianal areas. The disease usually occurs in children (2-10 years of age) and less commonly in adults. The typical presentation of scarlet fever includes fever, headache, sore throat, nausea, vomiting, and malaise followed by the scarlatiniform rash. The rash is typically erythematous it blanches (in severe cases may include petechiae), and owing to the grouping of the fine papules gives the skin a rough, sandpaper-like texture. It initially occurs centrally on the face, often with perioral sparing, neck, and upper trunk but quickly becomes generalized and typically desquamates after 5 to 7 days. On the tongue, a thick, white coat and swollen papillae give the appearance of a strawberry ( strawberry tongue ). Palatal petechiae and tender anterior...
Surgery performed in the abdomen, especially gynecological procedures, are associated with high rates of PONV. All laparoscopic procedures, which require gas to be inflated in the abdomen (gastrointestinal distension), are associated with higher rates of nausea and vomiting. Eye muscle surgery and ear, nose, and throat surgery (e.g., tonsillectomy) are also associated with a high incidence of PONV.
Patients with primary varicella present with fever, headache, and sore throat. Generally within 1 to 2 days of onset of symptoms, a papulovesicular rash erupts diffusely. The classic description of the chickenpox lesion is a dewdrop on a rose petal, suggesting a central vesicle on an erythematous base. Lesions continue to appear for 5 to 7 days. All lesions going from papule to vesicle to crusted lesion takes about
Pharyngitis is an inflammation and commonly an infection of the pharynx and its lymphoid tissues. Viral causes account for 90 of all cases. Group A -hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) is responsible for up to 50 of bacterial infections. Other bacterial causes include other streptococci, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhea, and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. In immunocompromised patients and patients on antibiotics, Candida species can cause thrush. Sore throats that last longer than 2 weeks should increase Patients with bacterial and especially GABHS pharyngitis present with an acute onset of sore throat, fever and frequently with nausea, vomiting, headache, and abdominal cramping. They may have a mild to moderate fever, an erythematous posterior pharynx and palatine tonsils, tender cervical lymphadenopathy, and palatal petechiae. Classically, the tonsils have a white or yellow exudate with debris in the crypts however, many patients may not have exudate on examination. Viral...
Psychological adjustment problems are common for youngsters affected by physical conditions however, many of the psychological symptoms that are recognized by the pediatrician or assessed by the mental health clinician do not meet threshold criteria for a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis (Bennett 1994). Evidence strongly suggests that these subthreshold symptoms of depression may impact outcome and should be a focus of intervention (Oguz et al. 2002 Todaro et al. 2000). In a study of 159 children ages 4-16 undergoing tonsillectomy, 17 had transient symptoms of a depressive episode, which had resolved 3 months later, suggesting the need to identify at-risk populations prior to procedures and to provide follow-up for persistent cases (Papakostas et al. 2003).
The Yiieh Ling text has other interesting features It says, for example, that if cool spring weather comes in what would normally be a very hot summer, there will be much feng kho (i.e., tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, etc.). It also says that if hot summer weather comes in autumn, there will be many cases of fever (nio chi). This is the word later appropriated to malarial fevers, but in the ancient times of which we are now speaking, it was simply associated with rapid alterations of shivering cold and hot fever. The text also says that if the hot rainy season continues into the autumn, there will be many cases of chhou chih (i.e., diseases involving sneezing, such as colds and catarrhs with some fever). The last part of the text says that if spring weather occurs in the last month of winter, there will be many problems of pregnancy, especially miscarriages and stillbirths (thai yao to shang). A possible explanation for this association might be shocks to the body caused by going...
Both sexes contract anal and throat infection from direct exposure to infected penile secretions. Both are associated with symptoms in a minority of cases. Asymptomatic rectal infection probably plays a major role in transmission. Throat infection is of minor importance, except as a site for dissemination of the gonococcus into the bloodstream.
Laceration repair, tonsillectomy) and some major surgical procedures (e.g., craniotomy). Many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of tetracaine-adrenaline (epinephrine)-cocaine (TAC), lidocaine-epinephrine-tetracaine (LET), and bupivacaine-norepinephrine (BN) in the management of lacerations in children.11 11681 Unfortunately, cocaine, a key ingredient in making the TAC drug combination work, is very toxic.11 Indeed, toxicity has been reported even when TAC has been applied appropriately and according to recommended guidelines. Therefore, we do not recommend it and prefer the alternatives (LET, BN), which are equally effective but much less toxic.
A very pleasant 73-year-old white female with a 48-hour history of hematochezia and hemoptysis presents to the ED. She denies any recent travel, exotic foods, raw foods, or sick contacts. She does note that she ate cold-cut sandwiches at a fundraiser approximately 3 days before her symptoms started. She also noticed that she has three friends who developed bloody diarrhea who also ate at this same fundraiser. She denies any fevers, shakes, chills, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, chest pain, nausea or vomiting, dysuria, hematuria, edema, or night sweats. On her initial presentation, she had a CT that showed pan-colitis and terminal ileitis. She was started on antibiotic therapy including ciprofloxacin and metronidazole. Fecal leukocytes were negative. A stool culture was sent and was positive for Stx. The final culture result was positive for Escherichia coli O157 H7.
One month later, GD is back for a follow-up visit. She notes that her thyrotoxic symptoms are gone, and overall, she feels great. She is receiving propylthiouracil 100 mg three times daily. Her most recent TSH was 0.9 milliunit L (normal 0.5-2.5 milliunits L)*, and her free T4 was 1.6 ng dL (20.6 pmol L normal 0.7-1.9 ng dL, or 9.0-24.5 pmol L). However, over the past few days she has developed a sore throat and feels achy. She wonders if she has the flu. Her vital signs show a pulse of 92 bpm and a temperature of 38.3 C (101 F). A CBC reveals a total WBC of 0.1 x 103 mm3 or 0.1 x 109 L (normal 4-10 x 103 mm3 or 4-10 x 109 L) with 15 neutrophils (absolute neutrophil count 150).
In childhood the disease is subclinical or masquerades as one of many episodes of upper respiratory infection. In the typical youthful adult, after an incubation period of about 5 or 6 weeks, clinical disease shows itself with prodromes of malaise, fatigue, headache, and chilliness followed by high fever, sore throat, and tender swollen cervical lymph nodes. Examination shows, in addition to the lymphadenop-athy, paryngitis often with scattered petechiae and swelling of the pharyngeal lymphoid structures, hepatosplenomegaly, and, not infrequently, a transient maculopapular rash. Palpebral and periorbital edema may develop. Mild jaundice appears in some 10 percent of patients. Rarely are symptoms related to the central nervous system. Following an initial leukopenia, a leucocytosis of 15,000 to 20,000 or higher appears with an absolute lymphocytosis and with atypical lymphocytes prominent as noted above.
Ing rhinorrhea, hypertrophic rhinitis, and maxillary sinusitis. There are also many diseases discussed that were associated with inflammation of the throat and mouth. Symptoms in the Tongui pogam are consistent with tonsillitis, diphtheria, uvulitis, tongue cancer, ranula (sublingual cyst), and various forms of tooth disease.
Including erysipelas, rheumatic fever, and the sore throats known as tonsillitis in Great Britain and as pharyngitis in the United States. Scarlet fever is caused only by certain strains that produce (or release) a soluble toxin, whose absorption causes the rash characteristic of the disease. Different strains of streptococci produce different amounts of toxin. Epidemics thus vary greatly in severity, with mortality rates ranging from 0 to 30 percent. Transmission of the infection is by intimate contact, such as occurs in overcrowded homes and classrooms, and evidence of airborne or droplet nuclei infection is slight. In the past, scarlet fever occasionally occurred as a hospital infection, and the disease was also transmitted in contaminated milk. Susceptibility to the skin rash differs according to the immune and hypersensitivity status of the individual. Those who have experienced scarlet fever once are unlikely to do so again, but remain vulnerable to streptococcal sore throats...
In historical accounts, it is often described as a malignant sore throat, and one of the most puzzling features is the sudden appearance of an epidemic. In the throat distemper epidemic of colonial New England, Boston was spared the high childhood mortality and morbidity experience elsewhere in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, illustrating the patchy geographic distribution of severe cases that one could observe even during an epidemic. Peter English (1985) describes how a phage virus is associated with the virulence of the diphtheria bacilli in that the tox gene can either elaborate toxin (tox+) or not (tox ). But in both cases the presence of this gene incorporated into the bacterial DNA stimulates immunity to virulent diphtheria. Because a low-iron environment or medium tends to stimulate or facilitate the production of toxin, English further speculates that the nutritional poverty of many premod-ern populations helped to discourage the frequent recurrence of epidemic diphtheria....
High fever associated with malaise, muscle and joint pains, sore throat, retrosternal pain, nausea, manifestation of liver involvement, bleeding tendency of variable severity, proteinuria, and erythematous maculopapular rash with petechiae are features of the illness, but not of themselves particularly diagnostic. The presence of an enanthem in the oropharynx has been considered by some to have specific diagnostic importance.
Infection with N. meningitidis can result in one of three conditions. In the large majority of cases, bacteria are carried in the nose and pharynx without any symptoms or with just a sore throat. Serious disease develops only if the bacteria reach the bloodstream. This can produce fulminating blood infection or meningococcemia, which is characterized by sudden prostration, high fever, skin blotches (ecchymoses), and collapse. Most of these cases are fatal unless promptly treated, and death may ensue in a matter of hours, before the meninges become involved.
Acute epiglottitis is a disease of relatively abrupt onset and rapid progression which, if untreated, results in death due to airway obstruction. Illness is characterized by fever, severe sore throat, dysphasia, and drooling. Airway obstruction is rapidly progressive and is associated with inspiratory distress, a choking sensation, irritability, restlessness, and anxiety. In contrast to viral croup, the patient is not hoarse and does not have the typical croupy cough, but the speech is muffled or thick-sounding. The child with epiglottitis insists on sitting up and In this section, only viral causes of croup are discussed. Initial symptoms in laryngotracheitis are usually not alarming and include nasal dryness, irritation, and coryza (profuse nasal discharge). Cough, sore throat, and fever occur. After 12 to 48 hours, signs and symptoms of upper-airway obstruction develop. The cough becomes croupy (sounding like a sea lion), and there is increasing respiratory stridor (difficulty...
A child 1 to 5 years of age is becoming verbal and, if in pain, can tell you where it hurts. They may start to report nausea, sore throat, chest pain, fatigue, or headache. Note that headache in a preschool child is unusual and probably indicates a serious intracranial pathologic process. Other questions to add to the infants' review of systems include questions about snoring and loss of bowel or bladder control in a child who has been toilet trained. Most children have achieved daytime control by 4 years of age, although only about half of children are dry at night by then. Restless sleep, including nightmares, night terrors, and sleep walking are not uncommon at this age.
Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) usually presents with fever, difficulty in swallowing, excessive drooling, sore throat, changes in voice, or neck stiffness. Limitation in neck movement on examination, especially with hyperextension, or torticollis may be an important finding. The resultant edema represents cellulitis and suppurative adenitis of the lymph nodes located in the prevertebral fascia and is seen on a soft tissue lateral x-ray of the neck as prevertebral soft tissue thickening. The RPA may be preceded by an upper respiratory infection, pharyngitis, otitis media, or a wound infection following a penetrating injury into the posterior pharynx. It is helpful for the examiner to be familiar with the normal laryngeal structures. The differential diagnosis includes pharyngitis, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, epiglottitis, membranous (bacterial) tracheitis, cervical adenitis, infectious mononucleosis, peritonsillar abscess, foreign body aspiration, and diphtheria. These patients may...
The tracheal mucosa below the vocal cords. The secretions can form a thick plug that may ultimately lead to an acute tracheal obstruction. Patients appear toxic, with high fever and a croup-like syndrome that can progress rapidly. The usual treatment for croup is ineffective in these patients. The characteristic membranes may be seen on x-rays of the airway as edema with an irregular border of the subglottic tracheal mucosa. On direct laryngoscopy, copious purulent secretions can be found in the presence of a normal epiglottis. The differential diagnosis includes acute laryngotracheobronchitis, retropharyngeal abscess, peritonsillar abscess, foreign-body aspiration, and acute diphtheric laryngitis.
Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a seasonal (summer-fall) viral infection caused by coxsackievirus A16. Toddlers and school-age children are affected most commonly. It is characterized by a prodrome of fever, malaise, sore throat, and anorexia over 1 to 2 days, followed by the appearance of the characteristic enanthem in the posterior oropharynx and on the tonsillar pillars consisting of small, red macules evolving into small vesicles 1 to 3 mm in diameter that rapidly ulcerate. The oral manifestations
Treatment is largely symptomatic except for antibiotics and rehydration. Analgesics, antipyretics, and throat sprays or gargles can provide symptomatic relief. Patients with known or suspected GABHS require antibiotics primarily to prevent rheumatic fever and suppurative complications. The Centor criteria are clinical decision rules developed to help guide physicians in testing and prescribing of antibiotics. Criteria include (1) tonsillar exudates, (2) tender anterior cervical adenopathy, (3) fever by history, and (4) absence of cough. Patients with fewer than two criteria should not receive either antibiotic treatment or diagnostic testing. Most authorities now favor evaluation using a sensitive rapid streptococcal antigen test (RSAT) for identification of group A -hemolytic streptococci, without throat culture for negative results, in adult patients with two or more Centor criteria. However, in children it is recommended that all negative RSAT be followed up with a throat culture....
Most cases of uvulitis are benign and self-limited. Angioedematous uvulitis is treated with steroids, antihistamines, and epinephrine in severe cases, either subcutaneously or nebulized. For infectious uvulitis, antibiotic coverage is dictated by the primary source of infection. For odontogenic infections, pharyngitis, or tonsillitis with uvulitis, penicillin, clindamycin, or amoxicillin with clavulanate are effective. Epiglottitis associated with uvulitis requires potent H influenzae coverage, such as third-generation cephalosporins. Admission is based on severity of airway compromise and accompanying infections. Figure 5.48.
Establishing the diagnosis of primary HIV infection is very important from a public health perspective. Patients are highly infectious during acute HIV secondary to an enormous viral load in both blood and genital secretions. Such patients may be unaware that they are infected and therefore may put others at risk. Clinical illness accompanies primary HIV infection in approximately two-thirds of patients. The usual time from HIV exposure to the development of symptoms is approximately 10 to 20 days, with average symptom duration of 1.5 to 2 weeks. The most common symptoms following seroconversion include fever, swollen lymph nodes, sore throat, myalgias arthralgias, diarrhea, nausea vomiting, weight loss, headache, mucocutaneous lesions, and a generalized maculopapular rash located over the face, neck, and trunk. This rash is seen in over 50 of persons with symptomatic primary HIV infection. The lesions are typically small, well-circumscribed, erythematous, nonpruritic and nontender....
The nuclear accident at Chernobyl in 1986 refocused interest on radiation as a factor in the development of thyroid carcinoma.113 122 Prior to 1950, irradiation was frequently used to treat acne, enlarged tonsils and adenoids, chronic sinusitis, and other benign conditions.115 External radiation was commonly used to irradiate enlarged thymuses in infants and young children. The latent period, the interval from exposure to the appearance of thyroid cancer, was assumed to be 10 years and increased for at least 3 decades. Childhood thyroid cancer appeared within 4 years after the Chernobyl accident.
Rheumatic fever usually follows an untreated beta-haemolytic streptococcal throat infection in children. It can affect many parts of the body, and may result in rheumatic heart disease, in which the heart valves are permanently damaged, and which may progress to heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and embolic stroke. Early treatment of streptococcal sore throat can preclude the development of rheumatic fever. Regular long-term penicillin treatment can prevent rheumatic fever becoming rheumatic heart disease, and can halt disease progression in people whose heart valves are already damaged by the disease. In many developing countries, lack of awareness of these measures, coupled with shortages of money and resources, are important barriers to the control of the disease.
The physical examination in a patient with a suspected sleep disorder focuses on several features. To assess for physical abnormalities associated with obstructive sleep apnea, particular attention is directed toward examination of height, weight, and blood pressure. Abnormalities of the upper airway, including enlarged tonsils, tongue, or low palate, can indicate possible airway obstruction. A reddened uvula and palate may be associated with loud snoring. Retrognathia and a small pharyngeal opening may also be seen in patients with sleep apnea.
Pharyngitis is a frequent office diagnosis, but the only common form of pharyngitis that requires antibiotic treatment is that caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS). Approximately 15 to 30 of children and 5 to 10 of adults with sore throat have streptococcal pharyngitis. Suggestive clinical features include fever, no cough or rhinorrhea, tonsillar exudates or beefy-red pharynx, and tender anterior cervical lymphadenopathy.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection may be asymptomatic in both men and women. The current USPSTF recommendation is for screening women at risk. Men with penile gonorrhea typically present with purulent penile discharge and dys-uria with N. gonorrhoeae infection. Mucopurulent discharge, dysuria, pelvic pain, and dyspareunia are typical symptoms in women. In patients who engage in anal intercourse, anal discharge, rectal pain, and bleeding can be presenting symptoms. Gonococcal pharyngitis is within the differential of exudative pharyngitis in sexually active patients. When symptomatic, throat pain, tonsillar exudates, and anterior cervical adenopathy may be present.
Structures, that is, the epiglottis and arytenoid cartilages. A high level of suspicion is necessary to make a diagnosis and avoid significant morbidity. Rapid decompensation and complete loss of the airway are the sequelae of most concern. The physician should always be suspicious when a patient presents with fever, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing, and when the severity of oropharyngeal physical findings is not in proportion to the symptoms. Croup, tonsillitis, periton-sillar abscess, and other neck infection may be incorrectly diagnosed in these patients. Epiglottitis occurs mainly in children age 2 to 7 years, although infants, older children, and adults can be affected. Mortality rates of 6 to 7 have been reported in adults. Signs and symptoms of epiglottitis include rapidly developing sore throat, high fever, restlessness, and lethargy. A supraglottic, muffled voice is common. Many patients have difficulty with their saliva and drool. Classically, these patients are in a...
Hoarseness can be a very early symptom, making most cancers of the larynx curable because they are detected early. For this reason, hoarseness should never be simply attributed to laryngitis without proper evaluation. Other symptoms, including sore throat and referred otalgia, can exist without hoarseness. These patients are often treated incorrectly with antibiotics for an extended period and referral is delayed, thereby increasing morbidity and mortality.
In general anesthesia, the anesthesiologist induces a state of unconsciousness in the patient. Either the patient inhales a drug to induce this state, or the drug is administered intravenously. General anesthesia also deadens pain and causes muscles to relax. Usually a combination of drugs is used to achieve these purposes. Although risks of general anesthesia are low, these drugs affect all areas of your body, including your heart and brain. Risks include postsurgical nausea and vomiting, sore throat, and muscle pain. More serious possibilities include stress on the heart, irregular heartbeat, and very rarely heart attack, stroke, brain damage, or death.
Influenza, also known as flu, grip, and grippe, is a disease of humans, pigs, horses, and other mammals, as well as of a number of species of birds. Among humans it is a contagious respiratory disease characterized by sudden onset and symptoms of sore throat, cough, often a runny nose, fever, chills, headache, weakness, generalized muscle and joint pain, and prostration. It is difficult to differentiate between single cases of influenza and feverish colds, but when a sudden outbreak of symptoms occurs among a number of people, the correct diagnosis is almost always influenza.
Erythema infectiosum is a viral infection caused by parvovirus B19 presenting most commonly between 4 and 10 years of age. It is characterized initially by bright red macular erythema of the cheeks with sparing of the nasal ridge and perioral areas followed by an erythematous maculopapular eruption on the extensor surfaces of extremities that evolves with central clearing into a reticulated, lacy pattern. It may present with low-grade fever, malaise, sore throat, arthritis, or arthralgias. The differential diagnosis includes morbilliform eruptions caused by viruses such as measles, rubella, roseola, and infectious mononucleosis. Bacterial infections (eg, scarlet fever), drug reactions, and other skin conditions such as guttate psoriasis, papular urticaria, atopic dermatitis, and erythema multiforme are also included in the differential.
Acute laryngitis is common and often accompanies upper respiratory tract infections, especially if associated with simultaneous voice abuse and ingestion of irritants. Alcohol, cigarettes and voice abuse (shouting or singing) can cause acute inflammation of the vocal cords, as can mechanical and chemical irritation. The patient complains of hoarseness and a mild sore throat, sometimes with pain on swallowing. In the absence of bacterial superinfection, acute irritant laryngitis usually settles with voice rest, a high fluid intake and simple analgesics. If associated with an upper respiratory tract infection, acute laryngitis may progress to bacterial infection, which will present with more severe symptoms and fever. Diagnosis is made on fibreoptic endoscopy. Treatment involves broad-spectrum antibiotics. Failure to respond within 2 weeks is an indication for referral to an ENT department.
Also known as temporal arteritis, giant cell arteritis (GCA) usually occurs in patients older than 50 years. It is most common in whites, particularly in people of northern European ancestry. Giant multinucleated cells are found in vessel walls, most frequently in the temporal arteries but sometimes in the vertebral or carotid arteries. The disease usually begins gradually with constitutional symptoms for weeks or even months, such as fatigue, malaise, fever, weight loss, and poly-myalgia rheumatica (PMR, a separate entity characterized by proximal muscle pain and stiffness, elevated ESR, and constitutional symptoms). Specific symptoms then develop, such as jaw claudication (masticatory muscle discomfort with chewing) new-type or new-onset headache scalp tenderness, particularly overlying the temporal arteries diplopia and visual loss secondary to retinal ischemia. Patients might also have loss of taste or hearing. About 30 of patients have neurologic symptoms such as peripheral...
The best-known herbicides are probably the bipyridilium compounds paraquat and diquat. These are non-selective. These compounds are toxic, especially paraquat, which can cause death in humans by toxicity to the lungs. Initially there is an acute alveolitis followed by fibrosis in which both type I and type II alveolar cells, as well as the clara cells, are destroyed. Infiltration with fibroblasts, alveolar oedema, perivascular and peribronchial oedema, and accumulation of neutrophils and macrophage are observed. Progressive fibrosis of lung tissue leads to respiratory failure and there is no known effective treatment to date. Lethal cases have almost all been the result of ingestion of the agricultural concentrate, usually with suicidal intent. Depending on the dose, death occurs up to three weeks after exposure, but after large doses are ingested, death may occur within 24 hours of ingestion. The local effects of paraquat ingestion are sore throat, pharyngitis, loss of voice...
Jane is the younger of two daughters. Her father was a successful businessman in shipbuilding, and although now semi-retired travels the country attending meetings and problem-solving. Her mother never worked. Jane's sister was always a high achiever and Jane often felt she was struggling to keep up with her family's expectations. Jane described a fairly happy childhood until her teenage years. Her parents were both very caring and she felt she had a good relationship with them. She was never very happy at school and missed a lot of primary school through sickness, tonsillitis and recurring chest infections. She always had friends at school and until the age of 15 was often the centre of attention and seen as the organiser.
Poliovirus is a member of the Picornaviridae. There are three immunologically defined serotypes of poliovirus, all of which are capable of causing paralytic disease. The poliovirus is a single-stranded RNA enterovirus. y Natural polio infection occurs through ingestion of the virus, which initially multiplies in the oropharyngeal and intestinal mucosa. Poliovirus either enters the CNS via the bloodstream or, alternatively, may be transmitted to the CNS through vagal autonomic nerve fibers in the intestinal lumen. y A temporal association corresponding to the incubation period of the disease was observed between tonsillectomy and the development of bulbar poliomyelitis, suggesting that the exposure of nerve endings via tonsillectomy could transmit poliovirus to the CNS. '27' A third hypothesis is that ingested poliovirus initially replicates in the gastrointestinal tract then a viremia ensues, and disseminated virus replicates at an extraneural site...
Bation and declining titer levels correlated with symptom remission must be demonstrated (Swedo et al. 1998). A throat culture should be performed during onset or exacerbation of psychiatric symptoms to confirm GABHS infection because not all children with GABHS infection have a sore throat (Murphy and Pichichero 2002 Snider and Swedo 2004). Additionally, not all exacerbations of PANDAS are linked with GABHS infection. Viral infections may also trigger PANDAS reoccurrence the primary immune response is specific, directed against a particular epitope in the GABHS, but the secondary responses may be more generalized and targeted against a wider range of antigens (Swedo et al. 1998).
T1, T2 and selected exophytic T3 lesions can be treated very effectively with radiation therapy or surgery. Radiation is the preferred modality as the control rates are excellent and the functional results are better. Pre-radiation tonsillectomy is not indicated. The overall risk for lymph node metastasis is high (60 to 75 for tonsillar fossa 45 for tonsillar pillar) and they must be addressed in the usual fashion. Contralateral lymph node metastasis in general is low (11 for tonsillar fossa 5 for tonsillar pillar).
Was referred to psychiatry because she had swallowed liquid dishwasher detergent. She had a Master of Arts in literature and French and taught in a small Catholic college. An only child, she was reared by her mother, who had left her husband because he had unnatural sexual tendencies. Sister B entered a convent at age 17 years. She had no psychiatric, drug, alcohol, or legal history. Her medical history was positive for a tonsillectomy at age 5 years, urethral stretching procedures from ages 12 through 17 years, and contractions of her left hand from a scalding water burn sustained in a cleaning accident at age 12 years. Her mother died in a psychiatric nursing home run by the daughter's convent 4 months before Sister B's hospitalization. A month earlier, Sister B had gone on her first-ever vacation with a fellow nun, who was a close friend. During the psychiatric assessment, Sister B insisted that she was not depressed or suicidal and had confused the liquid soap for an herbal drink....
Acute infective oropharyngitis presents as a sore throat, pain on swallowing and fever. The cause is usually viral and the condition is self-limiting, responding to symptomatic measures such as paracetamol, saline gargles and a high fluid intake. Throat swabs seldom yield any significant growth. Severe, non-resolving pharyngitis should raise the possibility of glandular fever. Chronic pharyngitis presents as persistent, dry, sore throat and irritation and discomfort on swallowing. Often Tonsillitis Acute tonsillitis is a common cause of a sore throat. Although the initial organism may be viral, superinfection with a beta-haemolytic Streptococcus usually ensues. Acute tonsillitis can also be a complication of glandular fever. The symptoms are sore throat, pain on swallowing (odynophagia), systemic malaise, headache and fever. Because of pain on swallowing, patients tend to avoid eating and drinking and, therefore, can become significantly dehydrated and debilitated. Diagnosis is...
Clinical Features and Associated Findings. The clinical course follows a predictable pattern. Between the fifth and twelfth days of the illness the initial symptoms are sore throat, fever, a gray to black throat membrane, nasal voice, regurgitation, and dysphagia. At about this time the trigeminal, facial, vagus, and hypoglossal cranial nerves may be affected. In approximately half the patients who have postdiphtheria neurological dysfunction, ocular involvement and paralysis of accommodation were noted in the second or third week. Mononeuropathies can also occur within 2 weeks of onset, and further peripheral neuropathy, predominantly sensory polyneuropathy, or proximal motor neuropathy extending distally is characteristic in the sixth and seventh weeks of the illness. Sometimes toxic encephalopathy, consisting of a change in mental status, drowsiness, and possibly convulsions, is seen.
Spread of HSV-1 is primarily through direct contact with contaminated saliva or other secretions. Symptoms of primary orolabial herpes usually occur 3 to 7 days after exposure and include a prodrome of fever, sore throat, and lymphadenopathy. Localized pain, tingling, tenderness, or burning can occur before the eruption of the vesicles, which are usually grouped on a background of erythema and edema (Fig. 33-53). The lesions coalesce, ulcerate, and heal within 2 to 3 weeks.
Telangiectasia and coagulation of larger vessels, tonsillectomy, urethral strictures, bladder surgery, salivary duct strictures Vascular lesions, tattoo removal, photodynamic therapy, dentine sensitivity and other dental uses Aiming beams and pointers, laser Doppler flowmetry, caries diagnosis, stimulation of wound healing KTP lasers produce a green light that is used for treating telangiectasia and pigmented lesions they are used for bladder surgery and urethral strictures. In ENT surgery, KTP lasers are used for tonsillectomy, sinus surgery and tear-duct surgery. Their versatility is partly due to the delivery system, which uses optic fibres of 1 mm or less in diameter. KTP lasers have the potential for treating parotid or submandibular duct strictures.
An older adult who smokes and has an enlarged supraclavicular or cervical lymph node may be more likely to have a cancer in the mouth, head and neck, or lung than a younger person with enlarged cervical lymph nodes accompanied by a fever and sore throat, indicative of infectious mononucleosis.
Primary syphilis is defined by the appearance of a painless chancre at the site of inoculation. If untreated, the chancre will heal within 3 to 6 weeks, after which most patients progress to the secondary stage of disease in which systemic spirochetemia becomes manifest by skin rash and flu-like symptoms with lethargy, fever, headache, and sore throat. The skin
Scribes, in considerable detail, the Armenian sore that had spread from Europe to Constantinople and Arabia. Reportedly, syphilis had appeared in 1498 in Azerbaijan, and then in Iraq and Persia. Because of some symptomatic similarities with smallpox, it was known as European pox or little fire. It was also confused with anthrax or ignis persicus. Baha ad-Dawla observed the rash, sore throat, and neural involvement of the disease. He recommended purges, venesection, and appropriate foods and drugs, and he referred to European physicians, whom he did not mention by name. He recommended a salve known as the European pox medicine, which he believed could restore health if properly employed. Baha ad-Dawla did not say what the salve contained, but he mentioned a few lines later that mercury could be given in an electuary. Another of his recipes and one of the European physicians also contained mercury.
Chitis, tuberculosis, whooping cough, diphtheria, ulcerative tonsillitis, skin diseases, scabies, diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal worms, leprosy, syphilis, smallpox, malaria, typhus, and fevers of various sorts. Although he usually wrote with immense confidence in his own opinions, Avison admitted that as we do not have the privilege of making autopsies to correct our diagnoses in case of death, many of our suppositions . . . may not be correct (Avison 1897).
Not known to have prior radiation, Duffy and Fitzgerald believed that no definite association between radiation exposure and thyroid cancer could be concluded from their data. Five years later, Clark adopted a similar strategy in evaluating in detail 13 cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed and treated in patients younger than 15 years at the University of Chicago.6 Contrary to Duffy and Fitzgerald, Clark found that all of his patients had received some type of childhood radiation, although only 3 of the 13 were treated for an enlarged thymus others received radiation therapy for acne, tonsillitis, or cervical adenitis.
During tonsillectomy, the Boyle Davis gag sometimes compresses the tracheal tube and causes partial airway obstruction. During IPPV, this is detected by a decrease in compliance and increased inflation pressure and, in the spontaneously breathing patient, by decreased movement of the reservoir bag.
In general, discharge of the patient should not take place until the patient is able to sit unaided, walk in a straight line and stand still without swaying. Usually patients have been able to have a drink and something to eat (this also demonstrates the absence of nausea). A responsible person should be present to escort the patient home and both the responsible person and the patient should be given both verbal and written discharge instructions. The patient should be advised to refrain from activities such as driving a car, operating machinery and drinking alcohol for 24 h. Communication with the patient's general practitioner is very important and many units are now using modern telecommunications, e.g. e-mail and fax machines, to ensure that the GP is aware of the operation performed and the requirements for postoperative follow-up. Patient hotels are a relatively new concept where patients spend their first postoperative night in a hotel near to the day surgery unit for which...
Uncuffed tubes are used in children (Fig. 32.54). A cuff is unnecessary to secure an airtight fit if the correct diameter of tube is selected, because the narrowest part of the airway is in the trachea at the level of the cricoid cartilage. However, the larynx is the narrowest part of the airway in the adult and a leak occurs if an uncuffed tube is used in addition, there is a risk of aspiration of fluid from the pharynx into the trachea. Nasotracheal intubation is less traumatic if an uncuffed tube is used. The incidence of sore throat is not influenced by the presence of a cuff on the tracheal tube.
This drug is metabolized by plasma cholinesterase at 88 of the rate of succinylcholine. An intubating dose (2 x ED95 0.15mg kg-1) has a similar onset of action to an equipotent dose of atracurium, but in the presence of normal plasma cholinesterase, recovery after mivacurium is much faster (Table 19.1) and administration of an anticholinesterase may not be necessary (if neuromuscular function is being monitored and good recovery can be demonstrated). Full recovery in such circumstances takes about 20-25 min, but the drug may be antagonized easily within 15 min. Mivacurium is useful particularly for surgical procedures requiring muscle relaxation in which even atracurium and vecuronium seem too long-acting, and when it is desirable to avoid the side-effects of succinylcholine, e.g. for bronchoscopy, oesophagoscopy, laparoscopy or tonsillectomy. The drug produces a similar amount of histamine release as does atracurium.
Details of the administration and outcome of previous anaesthetic exposure should be documented, especially if problems were encountered. Some sequelae such as sore throat, headache, or postoperative nausea may not seem of great significance to the anaesthetist but may form the basis of considerable preoperative anxiety for the patient. Previous anaesthetic records should be examined if available, as more serious problems such as difficulty with tracheal intubation should have been documented. Because of the risk of postoperative hepatotoxicity, the Committee on Safety of Medicines recommends that repeated exposure to halothane should be avoided within a 3-month period unless specifically indicated.
Adenoidectomy is often combined with either tonsillectomy or examination of the ears under anaesthesia. Anaesthesia is induced either by inhalation or via the i.v. route. Oral tracheal intubation is advisable either under deep anaesthesia or facilitated by succinylcholine. A Boyle Davis gag is inserted, the adenoids are curetted and the postnasal space is packed to achieve haemostasis. After 3 min, this pack is removed, the patient is turned into the lateral position and the trachea is extubated. Increasingly, adenoidectomy in the absence of tonsillectomy is being performed as a day-case procedure. For these patients, rectal paracetamol may be an appropriate analgesic.
Pharyngitis is an acute throat infection caused by viruses or bacteria. Other conditions, such as gastroesophageal reflux, postnasal drip, or allergies, also can cause sore throat and must be distinguished from infectious causes. Acute pharyngitis is responsible for 1 to 2 of adult physician visits and 6 to 8 of pediatric visits but gen-
Influenza, also known as flu, grip, and grippe, is a disease of humans, pigs, horses, and several other mammals, as well as of a number of species of domesticated and wild birds. Among humans it is a very contagious respiratory disease characterized by sudden onset and symptoms of sore throat, cough, often a runny nose, and (belying the apparent restriction of the infection to the respiratory tract) fever, chills, headache, weakness, generalized pain in muscles and joints, and prostration. It is difficult to differentiate between single cases of influenza and of feverish colds, but when there is a sudden outbreak of symptoms among a number of people, the correct diagnosis is almost always influenza.
Is a pseudomembranous patch or membrane present over the tonsils A membrane is associated with acute tonsillitis, infectious mononucleosis, and diphtheria. Figure 12-43 shows the oral cavity, characterized by erythema and a gray, membranous exudate, in a patient with diphtheria.
The onset of tularemia is usually abrupt, with fever, headache, chills and rigors, generalized body aches, coryza, and sore throat. A dry or slightly productive cough and substernal pain or tightness often occur with or without objective signs of pneumonia. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea can occur. Sweats, fever, chills, progressive weakness, malaise, anorexia, and weight loss characterize continuing illness. Rapid diagnostic testing for tularemia is not widely available. Respiratory secretions and blood for culture should be collected in suspected patients and the laboratory alerted to the need for special diagnostic and safety procedures. Streptomycin (1 g IM bid for 10 days) is the drug of choice, and gentamicin is an acceptable alternative. Tetracyclines and chloramphenicol can also be used.