How I Put A Stop To Tourettes Tics

How I Put A Stop To Tourettes Tics! No Drugs No Side Effects

The key to stopping this disorder is to use a unique & effective technique to eliminate the vicious cycle of Tourette's. Various types of relaxation methods can help to calm the nerves but does Not cure anxiety disorders. The quick and effective technique that I am offering goes right down to the root cause of the problem and simply turns it off. Once you have learnt this technique properly you can even use it while walking. In the e-book The Root Cause this technique is explained step-by-step from an ex-sufferers point of view. A person suffering from this disorder for a long period could also develop other anxieties such as Panic attacks, Fear of rejection, Fear of failure, Social fear and Comunication fear. In this e-book, one simple cure for all these anxiety disorders is explained. In this book I not only describe how I struggled in my personal life since childhood, my student life and working life, but also detailed the number of therapies that I went through over the years in order to find a cure. Finally I go on to describe how I came about finding the cure and how much easier life became without having to deal with the disorder that I had most of my life.

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Disorders Of Impulse Control Tourette Syndrome

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a disorder of motor and vocal tics. Motor tics are usually simple, nonpurposeful, and rapid movements affecting muscles of the face, neck, and shoulders, with less frequent involvement of the trunk and extremities. Vocal tics usually involve frequent and excessively forceful throat clearing, sniffing, snorting, humming, and explosive, monosyllabic, and nonsensical utterances. Less commonly, motor and vocal tics are more complex, in that they are more sustained and semipur-poseful in quality. Tics are usually preceded by a vague discomfort or urge to move the body region affected by the tic. This premonitory urge relentlessly builds in intensity until the individual capitulates to the urge and performs the tic. This typically brings immediate but temporary relief from the urge, only to have it build quickly again and reinitiate the cycle of tension, capitulation, and relief. Tics can be suppressed voluntarily, but not indefinitely (Peterson et al., 1998)....

Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome and Other Tic Disorders

Neck, and vocal apparatus more than the rest of the body. When childhood-onset tics are multifocal, motor, and vocal, last longer than 1 year, and naturally wax and wane, the term Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is applied. y Once considered a rare psychiatric condition, GTS is now recognized as a relatively common neurological disorder with both motor and behavioral manifestations. In approximately 60 percent of cases of GTS, a family history of similar disorders can be found, which suggests that it is an autosomal dominant disorder. No genetic marker, however, has yet been identified. Because tics respond to dopamine-depleting drugs and DA receptor antagonists (neuroleptics), striatal DA receptor supersensitivity and developmental striatal DA terminal hyperinnervation have been proposed as possible causes of GTS symptoms.U Some clinical data indicate that neurotransmitters other than DA may be involved in other aspects of GTS. y Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), a condition...

Anxiety and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Syndromes

Anxiety is an extremely common occurrence that affects everyone at some time and is characterized by an unpleasant and unjustified sense of fear that is usually associated with autonomic symptoms including hypervigilance, palpitations, sweating, lightheadedness, hyperventilation, diarrhea, and urinary frequency as well as fatigue and insomnia. Anxiety is thought to be mediated through the limbic system, particularly the cingulate gyrus and the septal-hippocampal pathway, as well as the frontal and temporal cortex. The term anxiety disorder is used to denote significant distress and dysfunction resulting from anxiety, including panic attacks and anxiety with specific phobias. Chronic, moderately severe anxiety tends to run in families and may be associated with other anxiety disorders or depression. The differential diagnosis of anxiety states includes other psychiatric conditions such as anxious depression as well as schizophrenia, which may present as a panic attack with disordered...

Neurotransmitter Imaging of the Dopamine System

The classical psychiatric disorder primarily affecting the dopaminergic system is schizophrenia. Beyond that, dopamine is also thought to play a mayor role in substance abuse and the neurobiology of addiction, as well as in Tourette syndrome. A comprehensive review summarizing the state of knowledge on the involvement of dopamine in psychiatric and neurologic disorders was recently published (Verhoeff, 1999) and, although missing the more recently acquired knowledge, it is recommended to readers with special interest in the subject.

Behavior Genetics Today

Tiousness and public sensitivity to the issue. Behavior geneticists such as Robert Plomin at Pennsylvania State University and Joel Gelernter at Yale University argue that the field has been misrepresented. They point out that many human behavioral genes, or at least chromosomal or molecular markers thought to be associated with specific genes, have been correlated with specific behavioral types such as Tourette's syndrome (leading to uncontrollable movements and speaking), schizophrenia, manic depression, alcoholism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and homosexuality, to name just a few. These correlations suggest strongly that there might be a significant genetic component to these behaviors. Human behavior genetic researchers emphasize that they do not discount the role of environment, nor the additive effect of many genes impinging on any given behavior. In fact, they make a point of emphasizing that the outcome of any behavioral development in humans (or any other...

Clinical Presentation

The differential diagnosis of OCD includes other psychiatric disorders that are characterized by repetitive behaviors and thoughts. To appropriately diagnose OCD, the content of the obsessions and or compulsions cannot be completely attributed to another psychiatric illness. For example, a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa should be made if a person has only obsessive worries about gaining weight and compulsions that are centered on not allowing the consumption of calorie-containing foods. By the same token, all obsessions or compulsions revolve around a fear of a specific animal, situation, or object, a simple phobia should be diagnosed. The obsessions of OCD must be distinguished from the ruminations of major depression, racing thoughts of mania, and psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia. The compulsions of OCD must be distinguished from the stereotypic movements found in individuals with mental retardation or autism, the tics of Tourette syndrome, the stereotypies of complex partial...

Basal Ganglia Dysfunction

Evidence for basal ganglia dysfunction is provided by neuroimaging studies and the association of OCD with neurologic disorders known to involve basal ganglia structures, including Tourette syndrome, Sydenham chorea, and Huntington's chorea (Cummings and Cunningham, 1992). The first description of neurologically based OCD comes from Constantin von Economo's 1931 treatise on postencephalitic Parkinson's disease, wherein patients suffered basal ganglia destruction as a result of severe Motor and vocal tics, including Tourette syndrome, occur frequently in association with OCD. The relationship between tics and OCD is complex, as motor tics often have a behavioral component suggestive of compulsive rituals, while OCD compulsions may lack accompanying obsessive thoughts, making them look like tics if the rituals are simple, repetitive behaviors like touching or tapping. The overlap between tics and OCD is most apparent in pediatric patient populations, where up to two-thirds of children...

Neurotransmitter Abnormalities

Dopamine and Other Neurotransmitters. Dopaminergic dysfunction in OCD is suggested not only by the obsessive-compulsive symptoms in patients with basal ganglia disorders but also by the increase in obsessive-compulsive symptoms following high-dose stimulant administration (Frye and Arnold, 1981) and occasional amelioration of symptoms following dopamine blocking agents (Goodman et al., 1990 McDougle 1997). High-dose stimulant administration has been thought to produce simple stereotypies, rather than more complex compulsive or obsessive behavior however, compulsive symptoms have been observed in children with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity during treatment with high-dose amphetamines (1 mg kg d-amphetamine or 2 mg kg methylphenidate) (Borcherding et al., 1990). For example, a 7-year-old boy spent several hours each evening vacuuming the carpet in his home, and another played with Lego blocks for 2 days, stopping only to eat and sleep. As in OCD, the children also became...

Reviews And Selected Updates

Conrad C, Andreadis A, Trojanowski JQ, et al Genetic evidence for the involvement of tau in progressive supranuclear palsy. Ann Neurol 1997 41 277-281. Fahn S, Goetz CG, Jankovic J, et al Movement Disorders Continuum. Minneapolis, American Academy of Neurology, 1995. Jankovic J (ed) Tourette syndrome. Neurol Clin 1997 15 239-480.

Evaluation Guidelines Table163

These tests help document cognitive and affective dysfunction that can be useful in determining diagnoses like Huntington's disease and also in guiding potential decisions regarding medical therapy. For example, when movement disorders are associated with depression or dementia, drugs that are associated with side effects like depression, confusion, or psychosis need to be avoided or used in reduced doses. Some movement disorders commonly co-exist with specific types of behavioral patterns, for example Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and attention deficit disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder, and

Clinical Syndromes

Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, Huntington's disease, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, essential myoclonus, dystonia, hemifacial spasms Tics can be divided into abnormal movements (motor tics), abnormal sounds (vocal tics), and combinations of the two. When motor and vocal tics are present and are of childhood onset and chronic duration, the designation of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is commonly applied. Motor and vocal tics can be simple or complex, and burst forth for brief moments from a background of normal motor activity. y Thus, they are paroxysmal in occurrence unless they are so severe as to be continual. Simple motor tics may be impossible to distinguish from a myoclonic or choreic jerk basically, they are abrupt, sudden, single, isolated movements. Examples include a shoulder shrug, head jerk, dart of the eyes, and twitch of the nose. Most of the time, simple tics are repetitive, such as a run of eye blinking. When multiple...

Speech Related Disorders

Phonic tics are either simple or complex vocal tics. Simple vocal tics are similar in character to motor tics and are expressed as inarticulate noises and sounds (throat clearing, grunts, coughs, shouts, snorts, word accentuation). Complex vocal tics include articulate words, phrases, or sentences such as echolalia (involuntary repetition of the last sound, word, phrase, or sentence of another person) or coprolalia (involuntary utterance of socially unacceptable or obscene words, phrases, or sentences). Phonic tics, including various involuntary vocalizations and coprolalia, occur most often in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Degenerative diseases of the nervous system (e.g., neuroacanthocytosis, Huntington's disease), as well as use of neuroleptic medication and acquired brain injuries, have also been associated with tic disorder.

Purposes of Neuropsychological Examination

As with other psychological assessments, neuropsychological assessments can provide important information for educational planning, especially for children. Documentation of basic intellectual abilities helps determine appropriate classroom placement (e.g., enriched environment, special education) for school-age children. Such tests also aid in the identification of children with severe intellectual deficits, such as mental retardation. Differences between intellectual ability and academic achievement are used in the identification of specific learning disabilities. In neurological conditions like Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome, neuropsychological assessments can be an integral component to individual educational plans by identifying strengths and weaknesses in academic abilities, as well as indicating co-morbid conditions like attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors.

Comorbidity

(34 percent), closely followed by major depression (33 percent), Tourette disorder (18 percent), oppositional defiant disorder (17 percent), and overanxious disorder (16 percent) (Fireman et al., 2001). The pattern of comorbidity found in this study was similar to that previously observed in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) pediatric OCD cohort, where only 26 percent of the pediatric subjects had OCD as a single diagnosis. Tic disorders (30 percent), major depression (26 percent), and specific developmental disabilities (24 percent) were the most common comorbidities found. Rates were also increased for simple phobias (17 percent), overanxious disorder (16 percent), adjustment disorder with depressed mood (13 percent), oppositional disorder (11 percent), attention deficit disorder (10 percent), conduct disorder (7 percent), separation anxiety disorder (7 percent), and enuresis encopresis (4 percent) (Swedo et al., 1989).

The Ocd Spectrum

In the past 10 years, research has begun to focus on a group of illnesses that have been labeled obsessive-compulsive spectrum (OC spectrum) disorders. People affected by these disorders have in common the symptoms of obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors and share a similar family history of mental illness and response to treatment. The current literature generally includes OCD, body dysmorphic disorder, hypochon-driasis, and Tourette syndrome in the OC spectrum (Yaryura-Tobias and Neziroglu, 1997a, 1997b). Trichotillomania, eating disorders, and self-mutilation also have overlapping symptoms and some argue that they should be included in this group. Some authors also have included pathologic gambling and sexual impulse control problems within the spectrum (Hollander et al., 1996). All these conditions share a similar core in that a person performs an action or has repetitive thoughts that reduce their anxiety. This performance of a ritualistic behavior to alleviate anxiety is...

Conclusions

The genetic liability underlying each of these conditions seems uniquely to affect particular neural systems in each of the disorders. Mesial temporal lobe structures that subserve socialization functions seem to be especially important in autism arrest of development of the association cortices caused by the MeCP2 deletion may generate the symptoms of Rett syndrome the hippocampus and other regions involved in learning and memory are important in fragile X and disturbances in parietal cortices likely subserve visuospatial deficits affecting children with Williams syndrome. Abnormalities in frontal, temporal, and possibly parietal lobes likely subserve the psychotic symptoms and cognitive disturbances observed in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Disturbances in the structure and function of particular portions of CSTC circuits seem to underlie the symptoms of Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder the portions of the circuits...

Further Readings

Berthier ML, Bayes A, Tolosa ES (1993). Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with concurrent Tourette's disorder and Asperger's syndrome. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32 633-639. Malison RT, McDougle CJ, van Dyck CH, Scahill L, Baldwin RM, Seibyl JP, Price LH, Leckman JF, Innis LB (1995). 123I Beta-CIT SPECT imaging demonstrates increased striatal dopamine transporter binding in Tourette's syndrome. Am J Psychiatry 152 1359-1361. Meyer P, Bohnen NI, Minoshima S, Koeppe RA, Wernette K, Kilbourn MR, Kuhl DE, Frey KA, Albin RL (1999). Striatal presynaptic monoaminergic vesicles are not increased in Tourette's syndrome. Neurology. 53 371-374.

The Mozart Effect

Such inconsistent research findings on the ability of music to enhance task performance, including the so-called Mozart Effect, rather than suggesting that all such claims are spurious and not to be taken seriously, instead merit further controlled studies. A particularly interesting theory on why specifically Mozart's music might have beneficial effects, but one difficult to prove, is that Mozart himself suffered from what is now known as Tourette's syndrome, and he instinctively created compositions that were therapeutic for his own condition. If this is so, and the calming effects of his music can be passed on to the listener, then Mozart did not suffer in vain.

Amphetamine Analogs

Tourette's syndrome can be exacerbated and precipitated by amphetamine, methylphenidate, and pemoline it sometimes clears with discontinuation of the drug but occasionally persists. y , y The bruxism and choreiform movements that develop with chronic amphetamine use may also persist after the drug has been discontinued.

Catatonia

Lia and echopraxia as potential symptoms. The term malignant catatonia is sometimes used for patients who have associated signs of hyperthermia or autonomic instability (Takaoka and Takata 2003). Historically, the term lethal catatonia has been used to describe cases of prolonged psychomotor excitement, with disturbances in autonomic function and, in its final stage, a confusional state that may resemble delirium or NMS (Castilo et al. 1989). The differential diagnosis for catatonia includes Parkinson's disease, stroke, malignant hyperthermia, and selective mutism. Hyperkinetic movement disorders, such as Tourette's syndrome and cerebral palsy, and hypokinetic movement disorders, such as Huntington's disease and Wilson's disease, should also be considered (Masand et al. 2005).

Case

Although Ritalin is generally considered safe, harm can result from its side effects. Potential side effects include nervousness, insomnia, anorexia, nausea, dizziness, headache, cardiac arrythmia, blood pressure changes, skin rash, abdominal pain, and growth suppression. Although rare, toxic psychosis, the development of Tourette Syndrome, abnormal liver function, and cerebral arteritis (inflammation) also have been reported (Physicians' Desk Reference, 2001). A number of lawsuits have been filed against the public schools and physicians by parents of children prescribed Ritalin. In many of these suits, children suffered physical (e.g., Tourette Syndrome) and or psychological harm (e.g., suicidal behavior) as a result of drug treatment recommended to them by school personnel (see Case 7-9). In some instances, parents report that they were pressured by school officials to seek drug treatment for their son or daughter with threats of exclusion from school if they failed to comply...

Arousal Disorders

Although sleep terrors and sleepwalking may be precipitated by stress in susceptible individuals, most affected children do not have severe psychopathology. Arousal disorders appear to be increased in Tourette's syndrome, post- traumatic stress disorder, and children with violent, abusive families.