Traditional Chinese Medicine

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Traditional Chinese Medicine

An almost complete afterworld household, closed in 167 B.C., was unearthed from the now-well-known Ma-wang-tui site near Ch'ang-sha in Hunan between 1972 and 1974. This tomb of a noble family had been equipped with virtually everything a deceased person was thought to need in his or her subsequent existence, including 14 manuscripts on various aspects of health care. These manuscripts marked the beginning of documented Chinese medicine and revealed that it was on the verge of breaking away from metaphysical health care. Thus, we may assume that they also reflected the earliest phase in the development of medicine in China, that is, the development of a system of health care beliefs and practices focusing specifically on the illnesses of the human mind and body rather than on human social and individual existence as a whole. The tomb dates from a period between the second century B.C. and the first century A.D., when Chinese medicine took on its basic shape. This appears to have been a...

Clinical Trials Of Chinese Medicine

There are features related to health which are derived from the philosophy of Chinese medicine ever since its initial development. Chinese people in all walks of life are influenced by this philosophy without being aware of it at all stages of their life. The belief that health depends on a harmony between contrasting forces prompts the individual to feel either 'hot or cold', 'light' or 'heavy', 'sick inside' or 'sick outside'. After treatment, the feeling might remain, might reverse or might get balanced. The feeling is subjective, but in any clinical trial including the data of QoL, could one ignore the outcome of the philosophical guideline responsible for the whole system of healing art Henceforth, it is obvious the QoL studies are particularly important for clinical trials of Chinese medicine and research should be done on special inclusions of data which are unique for Chinese medicine. EXAMPLES OF CLINICAL TRIALS ON CHINESE MEDICINE To give more solid information about...

Chinese Herbal Medicine

The word cancer is never mentioned in the early Chinese medical texts. Cancer is a Latin derivative of the Greek word karkinoma or crab, which describes the crab-like pattern of tumors. Chinese medicine does describe diagnostics and treatments for hard masses and tumors. A qualified herbalist will conduct a thorough exam as outlined in Chapter 2, What to Expect on Your First Visit Does It Hurt and help you put together a comprehensive herbal and perhaps nutritional program. Chinese herbal medicine is extremely

Classical Chinese Medicine

Handbook of TCM Pediatrics. Blue Poppy Press, 1996. Maciocia, Giovanni. Foundations of Chinese Medicine. Churchill Livingstone, 1989. -. Practice of Chinese Medicine. Churchill Livingstone, 1994. -. Tongue Diagnosis in Chinese Medicine. Eastland Press, 1995. Legge, David. Close to the Bone The Treatment of Musculoskeletal Disorder with Acupuncture and Other Traditional Chinese Medicine. Sydney College Press, 1997.

Chinese Medicine

Discussion of some prominent features of Chinese medicine and the traditional reaction of the people toward disease will help us understand the Chinese system and allow us to gauge its relative effectiveness from the modern point of view. Quarantine, which was a common practice in Europe from the fifteenth century onward, was never widely practiced in China. There were, however, instances of isolation of individuals for certain diseases such as smallpox and especially leprosy. Chinese medicine as a body of knowledge to fight disease never developed into a science as it did in Europe from the seventeenth century onward. For the scholar, medicine was a respectable field of study linked to philosophy, although the practicing physician was not accorded a high social status (Hymes 1987 Leung 1987a). Medical skills were transmitted within families and not by government-authorized institutions. The Imperial Academy of Medicine (tai -yiyuari) trained doctors only for government service and...

Theoretical Foundations and Treatment

The most impressive mode of treatment recorded in detail in the Ma-wang-tui scripts is drug therapy. More than 200 active drugs and neutral carrier substances were described, as was a highly developed pharmaceutical technology. Other therapies included massage, minor surgery, hot baths, sexual practices, dietetics, and moxa cauterization, in addition to various magical interventions. Acupuncture was not yet referred to and appeared first in the already mentioned biography of the semilegendary physician Pien Ch'io compiled by Ssu-ma Ch'ien in 90 B.C. Because no earlier documentation of needling exists in China, the origins of acupuncture, possibly the most recent mode of therapy in the history of Chinese medicine, remain unknown. For about 1,200 years after the emergence of Chinese medicine, until the end of the Song dynasty in the thirteenth century, a dichotomy prevailed between two major currents. One was the so-called medicine of systematic correspondence the other was pragmatic...

Literature and Specialties

Before the decline of the last of the imperial dynasties at the end of the nineteenth century, Chinese medicine developed on many levels and in many directions. Even though new insights and data were being accumulated virtually all the time, it maintained its original theoretical foundations perhaps a peculiarity of Chinese medical history is that the concept of obsolescence remained almost entirely alien to it. Indeed, before modern Western thought made an impact, no theory or practice was ever relegated to oblivion as outdated (only in pharmaceutics do some herbals list drugs no longer in use). The notion of a dialectic advancement of knowledge or of scientific revolutions does not apply to Chinese medicine. In fact, one should speak of an expansion rather than of a progression of knowledge, because the etymology of progress implies that something is left behind. More than 12,000 titles of premodern Chinese medical literature from a period of about 2,000 years are available in...

The Final Centuries of the Imperial

If the Han dynasty was marked by the initial development of Chinese medicine, the Song-Chin-Yuan period was the second most dynamic formative period in the history of Chinese medicine. The at tempts by K'ou Tsung-shih, who wrote about the middle of the thirteenth century, by Chang Yiian-su of the twelfth century, and most important by Wang Haogu to create a pharmacology of systematic correspondence signaled a closing of the most decisive rift that had separated the two major traditions of Chinese medicine for the preceding one and a half millennia. At the same time, however, individual schools began to appear, and these initiated an increasing specialization and fragmentation within this unified system - a process that came to an end only in the twentieth century. The second millennium of Chinese medical history was characterized by the attempts of individual authors to reconcile their own observations and experiences with the ancient theoretical guidelines. One of the first to...

The Epistemological Evolution of Scientific Medicine

Let us introduce a very schematic view of the epistemological evolution of medicine. The main historical traditions of Western medicine are the clinical, the physiopathological or bioexperimental and the clinical-epidemiological (Corbellini, 2007). The clinical paradigm emerged with Hippocratic medicine and lasted until the beginning of the 20th Century. According to early and modern clinicians the knowledge of disease can be attained by observing and interpreting a patient's natural or artificially induced symptoms and signs. From the late 17th Century a medical discipline called nosology emerged to classify symptoms and signs and to create specific patterns of disease entities, useful for making diagnoses (Porter 1997).

Concepts Instruments and Institutions Nineteenth Century Legacy

To begin the history with the Egyptian papyri, mythical in large part, or with William Harvey's De Motu Cordis, is to construct a respectable, positive lineage for a modern complex of medical ideas, practices, and institutions, and to assert the continuity of modern studies with those of the predecessors. 3 A system of medical ideas that dominated Western medicine up to 1800 in large part went back to the writings of Hippocrates (circa 400 B.C.) and Galen (circa 130-201 A.D.) and played a major role in the understanding and treatment of health and disease.4

Applying Complementary Medicine

The main focus of disease management for Chinese medicine is often the control of adverse symptoms. The ultimate goal is maintaining the well-being of the biological system. The aeti-ological consideration is therefore not directed towards the actual cause of the disease (of which the herbal expert has no idea), but a general conceptual state of the biological balance of the human bodily functions. The ancient healers correlated this conceptual state with the Taoist philosophy and imagined that bodily function was kept at a balanced state between Yin and Yang (i.e. negative and positive). Any loss of balance led to ailment and disease. While the aetiology, epidemiology and natural course of a disease affect the design of clinical trials for modern medicine, it is now clear that in Chinese medicine, there is little analogy of aetiological and epidemiological considerations. The course of events in a disease, for a herbal expert, is the appearance of the symptoms the loss of biological...

Herbal Drugs In China

HOW DO CONCEPTS OF TRADITIONAL HEALING AFFECT CLINICAL TRIALS ON CHINESE MEDICINE Earlier in this chapter, the author has already touched on the unique concepts in Chinese medicine, which are different from modern scientific medicine. The application of modern concepts in the direction of clinical trials leads to the inevitable sacrifice of some of the fundamental principles. Experienced herbal experts, therefore, might not like to participate. The following list includes the important concepts in Chinese medicine practice being sacrificed Chinese medicine emphasises holistic care and holistic response, whereas clinical trials prefer objective, specific data as endpoints. The inclusion of specific data into herbal research probably does not invite objection from the herbal expert, as long as general data like different aspects of well-being, i.e. quality of life, are included. 3. Response to Pathological Processes Chinese medicine emphasises the responses of healthy organs to...

Fibromyalgia Tired of Being Sick and Tired

Acupuncture, massage, and Chinese herbal medicine are recommended as effective treatments by the Fibromyalgia Network (see Appendix D, State and National Organizations)- The Network is an organization that provides information to patients with this potentially debilitating condition. Moxi-bustion or infrared heat treatments are also useful in driving out the cold. Nutritional supplements such as antioxidants (coenzyme Q10, vitamins E and C) are helpful in managing this condition, as are dietary changes to eliminate dampness and build immunity.

Diseases of Antiquity in China

Only because of a great movement in China that has been going on for about 70 years have we been able to review the records of diseases in ancient China and publish them in a Western language. This movement has been closely allied with a revaluation of the practice of traditional Chinese medicine by those who have taken a special training in it. Many valuable works have been written in Chinese on the history of Chinese medical art and science. So far, however, all this material has remained practically unassimilated by sinologists and other Western students of Chinese culture. Thus, for example, most of the dictionary definitions in common use are quite out of date. Among the works that we have used in preparing the present contribution is the brilliant monograph of Yii Yiin-hsiu on ancient nosology, or what might be called pathognostics - the recognition and classification of individual disease entities. Western historians of medicine should be aware that the treatise of Wu Lien-te...

Dance and Healing Practices

Although dance is primarily regarded as an aesthetic art form, there is a long tradition in the healing arts and spiritual practices to include it. For example, ancient shaman practices incorporated dance as a means to communicate with spirits and to activate transformative energy necessary to excise unwanted spirits. Formal spiritual practices frequently require specific physical postures to be assumed during meditation or prayer, the same postures that are repeatedly found in dance forms around the world. Many ancient healing traditions such as yoga and chi kung have clearly prescribed sequences of dance-like movements that are practiced in a state of mindful awareness. Since around 3000 BCE until today, these ancient movement arts offer relief to human suffering by activating physiological and psychological energetic release, and by providing hope to those seeking enlightenment and wisdom. As Western medicine began to depart from these ancient practices, dance and movement were...

What Practitioners Say It Does

Adherents of Taoism and traditional Chinese medicine claim that the practice of tai chi, by strengthening and balancing a person's energy, can achieve both preventive and therapeutic effects. Balanced qi is believed to be central to health, a peaceful state and well-being. Therefore, bringing about a balance of one's qi is said to ward off potential illness, improve general health status, and extend life.

Beliefs on Which It Is Based

Tai chi, qigong, and acupuncture are components of traditional Chinese medicine, which is based on the philosophy of Taoism. Taoism is a Chinese ideology initially expressed in the Tao-Te Ching, a book written in the sixth century B.C. Traditional Chinese medicine's most fundamental concepts include the invisible, internal energy or life force and the idea of opposing forces and balances, which are usually expressed as yin and yang.

Additional Resources

Though spirituality has long been a central focus of 12-step programs, only recently has Western medicine acknowledged its importance. Spirituality cannot be measured scientifically, but its consequences can. Research has documented that praying for strength has health-enhancing benefits (Dossey, 1997). Even atheist nations like the former USSR, turned to spirituality-based programs to deal with rampant alcoholism in their society.

Allopathic adulterants

The prevalence of allopathic medicines in herbal preparations has been of particular concern in Asian countries with large Chinese populations. The Taiwanese Food and Drugs Administration reported that 30 of the antirheumatic and analgesic herbal products that they sampled contained a wide range of allopathic drugs, including analgesics and steroids (NLFD 1991). Another large-scale study in Taiwan analysed 2609 samples and found that 26 contained at least one adulterant, such as acetaminophen and prednisolone (Huang et al. 1997). In Hong Kong, the government laboratory carried out 65,748 tests on Chinese medicines in 2004 (GovHK 2004). Many of the proprietary Chinese medicines on sale for the treatment of obesity and impotence caused the most concern. They were found to contain sidenafil, tadalafil, sibutramine, and N-nitrosofenfluramine. In Malaysia in 1991, 83 of anti-arthritis preparations seized from Chinese medicine shops contained phenylbutazone. 'Black pills' for arthritis,...

Pesticide contaminants

Tagami et al. (2008) detected 56 pesticides in natural medicines. The 2004 Annual Report of the Government Laboratories in Hong Kong reported that about 1 of Chinese herbal medicine samples were found to contain levels of pesticides that were of concern (GovHK 2004). In early 2004, some ginseng powder products imported from Taiwan were found to be contaminated with organochlorine pesticide. Since then, all ginseng powder products imported from Taiwan have been screened for the presence of pesticide residues. Contamination of ginseng was also reported in 2002 on the website. Of the 21 ginseng products tested, two had levels of pesticides 20 times more than allowed levels (Aschwanden 2001).

Understanding And Management Of Back Pain

Edwin Smith 3500 Monografia

Modern western medicine began with the European Renaissance. The scientific method used careful observation to unlock nature's secrets by the power of human reason rather than by religious revelation. Studies of anatomy, physiology, and pathology laid the foundation. Paracelsus (14931541) rebelled against the ancient writings and began clinical freedom by treating each patient on the basis of his own observation and diagnosis. Sydenham (1624-1689) made a clear distinction between illness and underlying disease and introduced our present concept of clinical syndromes. They should be reduced to certain and determinate kinds with the same exactness as we see it done by botanic writers in the treatises of plants. Diagnosis depends on certain distinguishing signs, which Nature has particularly affixed to every species. Sydenham classified back pain or lumbago with the rheumatic diseases. The word rheumatism came from the Greek rheuma, a watery discharge or evil humor that flowed from the...

Classifications of Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Fort Iii Osteotomy

Alternative medical systems are complete, complex systems of health-care practices that incorporate natural products, spiritual elements, diet, and other modalities. Some systems such as homeopathic medicine and naturopathic medicine have evolved in the Western world, whereas others, such as Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine, have developed in non-Western cultures. Ayurvedic medicine was developed in India more than 5000 years ago and is the best known of the traditional approaches associated with Indian medicine. The system involves the use of diet and herbal remedies, with emphasis on the mind, body, and spirit in disease prevention and treatment. Homeopathic medicine is based on the belief that ''like cures like'' minute doses of highly diluted animal, vegetable, and mineral substances can cure the symptoms that would be caused by higher concentrations of the same substance in a healthy person. It is believed that these minute doses stimulate the body's own defense mechanism...

Accreditation Commission for Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine AGAOM

Master of Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine program * American College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Master of Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine program Diploma in Traditional Chinese Medicine program * Five Branches Institute College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Master of Traditional Chinese Medicine program 200 7th Ave. Santa Cruz, CA 95062 831-476-9424 fax 831-476-8928 E-mail tan Web site ** Florida Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine Diploma in Traditional Chinese Medicine program * International Institute of Chinese Medicine ** Maryland Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine Master of Acupuncture program Master of Traditional Chinese Medicine program * Texas College of Traditional Chinese Medicine * Yo San University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Master of Acupuncture and Traditional Chinese Medicine program Master of Science in Traditional Chinese Medicine program ** New York Institute of Chinese Medicine Chinese...

Knee Pain Whats the Deal with Your Kneel

Techniques that increase circulation and decrease swelling and pain are used and may include using acupuncture needles, electricity, and electromagnetics. Chinese herbal medicine may be prescribed internally to deal with an overall damp and cold condition that aggravates the knee, or used in an external herbal wash (the warm liquid of boiled herbs rubbed on the surface of the knee with a washcloth).

Colds Nosing Around for Better Health

While there is no proven cure for the common cold, the time-tested techniques of Oriental Medicine can definitely shorten the course of your condition. Also, these methods are designed to strengthen your body's immunity to avoid secondary infections, such as bronchitis or strep, or the same cold over and over again. Because there are more than 100 viruses that cause our colds and no form of western medicine that can tame them, it makes sense to choose oriental medicine to individually diagnose and treat your cold symptoms. Rest is a common prescription and one that's frequently ignored. Acupuncture, herbs, and cupping are also frequent fliers on this kind of trip.

Acupuncture Yoga and Homeopathic Remedies

Three areas of CAM are most likely to be encountered in the family physician's office acupuncture, yoga, and homeopathic remedies (see Chapter 52 online for herbs and supplements). As shown in Table 11-9, these three areas are components of whole systems or nonallopathic medical systems of care acupuncture within traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), yoga as a part of Ayurveda, and homeopathic remedies as the mainstay of homeopathy. Many Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapeutics Approaches can include nutrition, botanicals, homeopathy, Chinese medicine, physical medicine (e.g., ultrasound, massage, manipulation), hydrotherapy (e.g., baths, steams, wraps, colonic irrigation), and various detoxification regimens. Part of traditional Chinese medicine also used to cultivate qi includes breathing exercises, meditation, and physical movement used in the martial arts and to generate energy to be used in healing.

Fun and Laughter Remember Us

Japanese acupuncture This treatment is similar to the principles of Chinese medicine, but great emphasis is placed on the abdominal exam. traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) A medical practice that incorporates a variety of highly effective therapies into a medical system that takes each individual into account as a whole entity rather than simply treating diseases.

Diseases of the Premodern Period in Japan

The role of disease in Japanese history is a topic that has attracted the interest of Western historians only recently. The strongest stimulus for the study of disease and its effects on Japan's premodern society was the publication of a new edition of Fujikawa Yu's classic Nihon shippei shi in 1969 with a foreword by Matsuda Michio (A History of Disease in Japan, originally published in 1912). Along with his History of Japanese Medicine (Nihon igaku shi, 1904), A History of Disease in Japan provided historians with a detailed list of many of the epidemics that ravaged the Japanese population in the premodern era, including original sources of information and a diagnosis of many diseases in terms of Western medicine. Hattori Toshiro supplemented and updated Fujikawa's work in the postwar era with a series of books on Japanese medicine from the eighth through the sixteenth century. Some diseases were never diagnosed by court doctors who were trained only in Chinese medicine. Japanese...

Mos Gallicus Venerean Disease In Renaissance

Thus, a third approach - examining the history of the concept of syphilis rather than the history of the disease itself - seems appropriate. This third way requires contemplating the disease entity called syphilis within the strict historicocultural context it occupies, and from which it receives its true significance. Put plainly, every disease entity is an intellectual construction that is peculiar to some form of medicine and every form of medicine is nothing but a historical variable in any human community. Venereal syphilis took shape in Western medicine only because of intellectual and social changes in the latter nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, foremost among them the formulation of germ theory. Let us consider the development of the concept of syphilis in this light. Our departure point is an epidemic in late fifteenth century Europe. As for the concept of syphilis, it changed profoundly during the second half of the nineteenth century as the disease became a major...

Disease in the Premodern Period

The Adoption of Western Medicine use Western medicine to treat the non-European population, ulterior motives such as religious conversion were often at work (Hutchinson 1933 Worth 1985). Besides the suspect attitudes and methods of colonists and missionaries, there were other important reasons why Western approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease were not readily adopted by Southeast Asians. For most, language and finances also presented practically insurmountable barriers to the acquisition of Western medical knowledge. Prominent, too, were indigenous beliefs regarding illness and the working of the body, and negative perceptions of the efficacy of Western methods. In the latter case although the value of certain aspects of Western medicine, such as the medicinal use of opium, had long been recognized in Southeast Asia, the efficacy of other features was not apparent. Many of the practices introduced by Europeans in the prevention and treatment of illness were...

The Eight Directions Which Way Did He Go

The identification of patterns according to the eight directions is the foundation for all other methods of diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). By looking at your condition, your acu-pro will determine the basic location and nature of the disharmony that has led to your illness.

Physical Examination

Caveau Double

Other medical systems, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), may have completely different explanations for the changes seen in rheumatologic conditions. Although a conventional practitioner may not be aware of these, it is helpful to know about complementary modalities that may be beneficial (e.g., acupuncture helping patients with OA and fibromyalgia).

Describe herbal therapy

Herbal medicine is most often associated with traditional Chinese medicine, Indian traditional medicine (Ayurveda), or Western herbalism. It is a form of botanical medicine that uses plant extracts to treat various diseases. Patients should be aware that herbal therapies are not without potential for adverse interactions with other medications. In addition, herbal remedies are not regulated by the Food and Drug administration (FDA).

Sciatica The Nerve of It

Oriental Medicine categorizes sciatica according to how you feel. The diagnostic category of wind is used for pain that moves around, while dampness characterizes the often stiff, heavy ache in the hip muscles. In traditional Chinese medicine terms, cold, stuck Qi and blood cause the sharp stabbing pain of sciatica.

Premedical Health Care

Ancestral and demonological notions of health and illness are mentioned here for two reasons. First, they have survived in Chinese culture until the present time as important aspects of the overall system of conceptualized and practical health care, particularly in the treatment of mental and children's illnesses. Second, Chinese medicine, documented since the second century B.C. and developed as a system of ideas and practices based on insights into the laws of nature rather than on metaphysics, still embodies some of the fundamental tenets of these earlier approaches to understanding health and healing, namely an emphasis on cause effect relationships and a localistic-ontological notion of disease.

History and Geography

Furthermore, in looking at what we call infectious diseases, we must distinguish between what may be termed disease entities and the diseases themselves. As disease entities, infectious illnesses assumed their present shape only in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Western medicine as a result of the development of germ theory. But as diseases in themselves they have existed for a long time.

Early Christian Era East and West

After the collapse of the Roman Empire, Western medicine experienced a period of retrenchment and decline. Healing became an important act of Christian charity, a divine gift freely provided within the framework of the new church and not restricted to professional physicians. Given this religious orientation, Christians healed through the confession of sins, prayer, the laying on of hands, exorcisms, and miracles, occasionally performed by saints or church fathers.

Open Cricothyrotomy Technique

Storrow AB, Thurman RJ The Atlas of Emergency Medicine, 3rd Edition nttp wivw.-accessmedicine.tcm Copyright The ilcGranHHil Companies, Inc. All rights Teserved, Source Knoop KJr Stack LB. Storrow AB, Thurman RJ The Atlas of Emergency Medicine, 3rd Edition nttp wivw.-accessmedicine.tcm Copyright The ilcGranHHil Companies, Inc. All rights Teserved,

Causes of the Creakin

Qi Gong exercises are often taught to patients. The slow, gradual movements and deep breathing help keep joints moving and increase circulation. Food therapy and Chinese herbal medicine are effectively used to nourish your body, treat any underlying problems, and keep you feeling good. Arthritis is one of the conditions that Oriental Medicine has been treating for centuries. See your acu-pro to discover what kind of help is waiting for you.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome A Moving Experience

The November 11, 1999, issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association reported that Chinese herbal medicine appears to significantly alleviate symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Read all about it and see your acu-pro The November 11, 1999, issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association reported that Chinese herbal medicine appears to significantly alleviate symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Read all about it and see your acu-pro

Shamanic Practices

Although herbal remedies and some other healing techniques have largely been replaced by Western medicine, shamanic rituals remain a vital part of tribal life for many Native American groups. With some variations across tribes, four predominant healing techniques are practiced by Native Americans purifying and purging the body, the use of herbs, involvement of shamanic healers and symbolic ritual. These four techniques are described below, with the understanding that modifications and embellishments occur from tribe to tribe.

What It Is

From that held by conventional medicine. Rather than relying on concepts such as the body types of Ayurvedic medicine or the vital life force concept of traditional Chinese medicine, naturopaths study conventional anatomy and other medical sciences. They use X rays, order laboratory tests, and apply physical examination techniques as do conventional physicians.

A naturopathic first

In 1996, Seattle opened the country's first state-supported naturopathic medical clinic. It featured, as do all naturopathy practices today, diet, exercise, vitamins, acupuncture, and plant-product therapies. Naturopathy and conventional medicine differ, however, in emphasis and in treatment. Naturopathy is not associated with a unique healing technology. Rather it uses a collection of natural treatment modalities such as botanical medicine, nutritional therapies, homeopathy, acupuncture, traditional Asian medicine, hydrotherapy, counseling, and physical medicine (manipulation of muscles and bones). Homeopathy (Chapter 3) is a system of medicine involving the use of very small amounts of a symptom-causing substance to treat the condition that produces similar symptoms. Traditional Chinese medicine (Chapter 6) applies techniques developed in ancient China to treat disease, and acupuncture (see Chapter 1) involves the insertion of needles in specific points on the body to cure or treat...

Dr Guang Wei Lu

Development of liquid and semisolid formulations, and drug delivery through topical, transdermal, and ocular routes of administration. Some of his past positions include Associate Professor at the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (China) Visiting Scholar at the Medical School of Osaka City University, Department of Pharmacology (Japan) Senior Staff Scientist in Johnson & Johnson Consumer products (USA) and principal research scientist and associate research fellow at Pharmacia (USA). Dr Lu has written and published more than 30 research articles, book chapters, and patent applications. He has also been invited to lecture at numerous national and international conferences as well as universities. In 2006, he received the Pfizer Global Research and Development Achievement Award.

The Old Approaches

In this chapter, we do not endorse this traditional approach. We do want to apply modern assessment tools for a better understanding of herbal or Chinese medicine treatment while at the same time we need not argue against the value of anecdotal observations in Chinese medicine. After all, the development of this system of healing depends solely on anecdotal analysis. In our discussion full reference will be given to what is being recommended in China, which undoubtedly harbours most activity in Chinese medicine.

Adverse Effects

In spite of the good past experience, the prevalent belief is that Chinese medicinal herbs are safe. On the other hand, more and more reports appeared on adverse effects and toxicities, and non-users of herbs tend to exaggerate the reports. To date, standard instructions on clinical trials for Chinese medicine define adverse drug reaction in exactly the same way as modern scientific clinical trials, and explanations of the reactions have been identically identified.29 Reactions are defined as harmful and unexpected effects while the standard dosages are used in certain drug trials. It is specially pointed out that for Chinese medicine, the harmful reactions could be due to the quality of the herb and poor choice of indication. These reactions do not include allergic responses. From the above account it might appear obvious that adverse effects in clinical trials using Chinese medicine in fact follow closely the experience encountered in other drug trials. for Chinese medicine trials...


Diseases were discussed in terms of their major symptoms. However, often no clear distinctions were made, and death from famine was recorded with the same wording as death from an epidemic. No need for precision may have been felt in a society that attributed misfortune, disease, and death to the action of ghosts, devils, and demons. Although the more rational principles of Chinese medicine were known to the physicians, they rarely made distinctions solely based on these criteria. leans strongly on the tradition of Chinese medicine. Thus, symptoms such as hemorrhages, blockages of the throat, loss of consciousness, and sudden death from various infectious diseases are discussed. A combined study of the Hyang-yak kugup pang and official annals such as the History of Koryo would provide more insights into the epidemiology of that period. It must be noted, however, that the official historical writings expressed little awareness of medical problems in the country except in case of...


Quantity that passed down through the pores in the palate and by way of the trachea to the lungs. This unspoken assumption behind the name is paralleled by that behind the modern definition We make the assumption that the inflammation of the definition results from infection by an organism. The identity of the organism gives us the ontology of the disease. A similar situation existed in all historical periods that is to say, definitions of disease have always carried with them some part of a theory of causation. (Purely empirical accounts of disease are descriptions of symptoms.) To put it another way, disease in Western medicine has traditionally been seen as disordered function. But function is a process, and knowledge of it depends on knowledge of how the body works.

Part Three Overview

The idea that our thoughts and emotions can affect our physical status is a fundamental belief. It is found in early Greek medical practices and virtually all ancient healing systems, and it persists today in systems such as traditional Chinese medicine and Ayurvedic medicine. It has worked its way into our idioms, with phrases such as worry yourself sick, and you're going to give yourself a heart attack. Can we really worry ourselves sick Can the mind cause illness or cure it Even short of that, can it or aggravate the course of disease or reduce its symptoms


Qigong is a vital part of Chinese medicine and the basis of Asian martial arts. Today it is used widely as a gentle technique to calm the mind and improve stamina. Qigong exercises involve combinations of concentrated, controlled breathing with simple, repetitive motions.

Holistic Tools

Traditionally used by nonmedical specialists, these treatment modalities address the health of the entire body, not just a specific body part or malady. Clinicians trained in Western medicine philosophy and techniques have been incorporating these elements of Eastern medicine into their treatment arsenals.

Biological Dentistry

This is based on the belief that biological energy flows throughout the body, but can become imbalanced or short-circuited. Biological dentists apply to restore that balance by injecting a local anesthetic around the tooth thought to correspond to a particular body organ. That is said to remove the block and restore energy flow. This idea is similar to the concepts behind Traditional Chinese Medicine and other ancient beliefs described in Part One.

Crystal Healing

Crystal healing involves very simple procedures, such as placing particular stones around one's home, carrying them in a pocket, wearing them around the neck or elsewhere as ornaments, and touching them as the urge arises. In more formal types of crystal healing, a healer places various colored stones on different parts of the body while the individual is laying down. Often these are the body spots identified as meridians in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Chapter 6) and known as chakras in ancient India's Ayurvedic Medicine (Chapter 2).

Waiting and Watching

Poor, working-class, and lower-middle-class single mothers were less likely to comment on normative coupledom as an aspect of counseling, and many counselors were skilled at making them feel comfortable, especially if their patient population often arrived without partners. Many single mothers from less privileged backgrounds simply told the counselor, I don't know anything about his family or I can't tell you all that stuff, dismissing the counselors' probes for paternal health histories. But they rarely questioned why the information was needed. Professionals, once again, felt more empowered to question the framework within which their medical interactions were structured. I've become more and more open to Western medicine, I basically think it's a good thing. Of course, you've got to stay in control, learn all about it, know your rights and needs (Enid Zimmerman, 41, white municipal service planner).


The macrobiotic diet is based in large part on the yin-yang principle of balance, a fundamental component of ancient Chinese medicine (see Chapter 6). Yin and yang are opposite forces believed to describe all components of life and the universe. Here the worldview of balance is embodied in diet, including the selection, preparation, and consumption of foods. The macrobiotic diet was popularized by George Ohsawa, a Japanese philosopher who sought to integrate traditional Asian medicine and belief with Christian teachings and some aspects of Western medicine. Starting in the 1930s, he taught a philosophy of healing through proper diet and natural medicine. He moved to Boston in 1960, where an early disciple, Michio Kushi, came to spearhead the macrobiotic way of life.

Shih Ching

The classification into six divisions is of extreme importance, because it shows how ancient Chinese medical science was independent of the theories of the Naturalists, who classified all natural phenomena into five groups associated with the Five Elements. Chinese medicine never entirely lost its 6-fold classification but that is a long story, which cannot be told here. Physician Ho diagnosed the illness of the Prince of Chin as ku1, by which he did not mean the artificial poison nor, so far as we can see, schistosomiasis, but rather some kind of physical exhaustion and melancholia arising from excessive commerce with the women of his inner compartments. The earliest grew up in the western state of Chhin the other was located in the eastern seaboard state of Chhi. From Chhin came the physician Huan, whose attendance on the Prince of Chin in 580 B.C. long remained famous the physician Ho, already mentioned as examining another Prince of Chin 40 years...


Syphilis presents us with a new disease, or what was believed to be a new disease when it first appeared in Muslim societies, beginning in the late fifteenth century. Syphilis and other European diseases were introduced into the Middle East in the early modern period by Europeans, who also brought their own methods of treatment. Western medicine was disseminated by missionaries and merchants, travelers, and consular doctors. Before the era of translating Western medical textbooks into oriental languages, the extent of the transmission of Western medicine can be gauged, in some degree, by the recommendation by native physicians of Western treatments for the new Western diseases. The broader context in which al-Antaki worked is presented by Prosper Alpin in his description of medical practices in sixteenth-century Egypt. His account, first published in 1591, is surely one of the earliest studies of non-European medicine, and Alpin himself well represents the means whereby Western...

Medical Missionaries

Despite the obvious effectiveness of quinine, vaccination, and various surgical operations, the medical missionaries found that Western medicine was quite powerless before continued fevers or, put another way, that the mudang (Korean shaman) was equally as effective as they were. Indeed, the missionaries admitted that in the treatment of many ailments, the results obtained by Korean doctors were comparable to those of the Western doctor (Busteed 1895).


With the revival of classical Greek learning, or humanism, during the Renaissance, Western medicine was profoundly influenced by the replacement of corrupt and incomplete texts with new Latin translations of the original Greek. However, tensions developed between the old learning and contemporary insights into the phenomena of health and disease, some of which had been previously ignored or misun


It would be possible to organize our material in several ways purely chronologically, listing texts and their content or purely nosologically, listing diseases and the terminology relating to them. Both of these approaches would, however, produce extremely dull reading, and therefore we shall adopt a combination of approaches. Moreover, we can provide only a limited number of examples. We propose to bring the story down to the end of the first century B.C., but in so doing we intend to utilize the Nei Ching only in part we cannot mention all the diseases that are described in that fundamental medical classic. It will be convenient also to consider diseases in the light of the macrocosm-microcosm theories current in early Chinese medicine. The physicians of the Chou period, which lasted most of the first millennium B.C., were extremely conscious of the relation of diseases to geography, to the prevailing climate, and to the seasonal changes of the year. They therefore very markedly...

Basic Perspectives

The Ma-wang-tui manuscripts, the Huang-ti nei-ching, the Nan-ching, and the Shen-nung pen-ts'ao ching are the main sources for our current understanding of the early developmental phase of Chinese medicine, even though the last three may have undergone considerable revisions in later centuries and cannot be considered genuine Han dynasty sources in their entirety. Still, the picture emerging from studies of these sources so far reveals the formation of several complex and multifaceted approaches to health care, all of which were associated with basic social, economic, and ideological changes preceding and following the unification of the Chinese Empire in 221 B.C. Central to Chinese medicine is its perception of the human organism. Corresponding to the socioeconomic structure of the unified empire, the human organism was described in Han sources as a system of individual functional units that stored, distributed, and processed resources, which were brought into the organism from the...

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