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Full Urticaria Cure

Natural Urticaria And Angioedema Treatment was created by Dr. Gary M Levin, who has many years of experience in studying hives treatments. The main manual of this treatment contains 191 pages that cover all necessary information about celiac disease, in general, and Urticaria and Angioedema, particular. The e-guide offers learners a step-by-step strategy on how to get rid of all symptoms o hives and Angioedema and the method to prevent their problem from coming back. Full Urticaria Cure allows the body to fight the disease naturally so that your body can become immune to such disease and you can stay healthy for the rest of your life. It offers information on various other health and nutritional issues that can help a person to live their live with total confidence. More here...

Full Urticaria Cure Summary


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Angioedema Clinical Summary

Angioedema is clinically characterized by acute onset of well-demarcated cutaneous swelling of the face, lips, and tongue edema of the mucous membranes of the mouth, throat, or abdominal viscera or nonpitting edema of the hands and feet (often asymmetric). It is either hereditary, allergic, or idiopathic. Hereditary angioedema is an autosomal dominant trait associated with a deficiency of serum inhibitor of the activated first component of complement (C1). Allergic angioedema can result from medications or contrast agents, environmental antigens such as hymenoptera, or local trauma. Complications range from dysphagia and dysphonia to respiratory distress, airway obstruction, and death. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-induced angioedema has a predilection for involvement of the lips, face, tongue, and glottis and like hereditary angioedema, is often refractory to medical therapy.

Urticaria Clinical Summary

Acute urticaria (defined as < 6 weeks duration) is a common condition of childhood caused by histamine release associated with an infection, an insect sting or bite, or ingestion of certain foods or medications. It is characterized by the sudden onset of pruritic, transient, erythematous, well-circumscribed wheals scattered over the body. The lesions blanch with pressure and may vary from pinpoint size to several centimeters in diameter. They can have a central clearing or associated tense edema. Individual lesions usually resolve in 1 to 3 hours, and most urticarial reactions last 24 to 48 hours. On rare occasions, they may take weeks to resolve. Infrequently, there may be systemic reactions such as wheezing, stridor, or angioedema. The differential diagnosis includes erythema multiforme, Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP), arthropod bites, contact dermatitis, reactive erythemas, allergic vasculitis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, mastocytosis, and pityriasis rosea.

Sjogrens disease chronic urticaria

A recent randomised double-blind study examined the role of stanzolol as an adjunct to standard antihistamine therapy for chronic urticaria. Patients (20 men, 30 women) were randomised to treatment with stanazolol 4 mg daily or placebo in addition to antihistamine (cetrizine 10 mg daily) for 12 weeks (Parsad etal. 2001). Over 70 improvement in physician and patient scored urticaria was observed in 17 26 patients who received stanazolol, but in only 7 24 patients who received cetrizine alone. This highly statistically significant benefit was observed four weeks

Hypocomplementemic Urticarial Vasculitis Syndrome

Hypocomplementemic cutaneous vasculitis is an acquired form of deficiency that leads to chronic decreases in complement components C1, C2, C4, and C3. The syndrome is now called hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) but in the past was identified as SLE-related syndrome, hypocomplementemic cutaneous vasculitis, chronic hypocomplementemic cutaneous vasculitis, or hypocomplementemic vasculitis urticaria syndrome. Patients with this syndrome have several distinct clinical features similar to those of SLE but do not fulfill the SLE diagnostic criteria (74-93). The typical patient is a young female with chronic rash, angioedema, and arthralgias. In clinical and serologic studie of 47 patients (37 females, 6 males, 4 sex not reported) with SLE-related syndrome, two patients developed pseudotumor cerebri (80, 89). The rash, which is the most characteristic and prominent feature of the syndrome, was initially called erythema multiforme-like because of the presence of...

Hereditary angioedema

The efficacy of oral 17a-alkylated androgens in hereditary angioedema was established by a small, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised cross-over study (Spaulding 1960) in which six members of a single family received multiple periods of treatment or placebo. This study clearly demonstrated the efficacy of oral methyltestosterone in reducing the frequency of attacks well before the disease pathogenesis was understood. Subsequent studies confirmed these observations showing that androgen therapy increases C1-esterase inhibitor concentration partially rectifying the underlying biochemical deficiency responsible for the disorder (Sheffer et al. 1977). Although other 17a-alkylated oral androgens such as flu-oxymesterone, oxymetholone and stanozolol have been used, danazol has become standard prophylactic therapy. This followed arandomiseddouble-blind cross-over study which showed increased blood C1-esterase inhibitor concentration together with a dramatic decrease (94 vs. 2 ) in...


Urticaria, commonly known as hives, can be acute or chronic, and the numerous triggers include drugs, food, infections, arthropods, autoimmune disease, and stress. The wheals consist of circumscribed areas of raised erythematous plaques that are often annular and very pruritic (Fig. 33-67). These wheals can occur on any skin area and are transient and migratory. The acute form of urticaria lasts less than 4 to 6 weeks, and the chronic form lasts more than 6 weeks. When there is an obvious new drug causing the eruption, the causation is easy to determine. For patients on multiple medications and no evidence of infection or illness, diagnosis can be very difficult. Skin prick testing or radioallergosorbent assay testing (RAST) testing, typically done through an allergy specialist, may help determine the cause but may be elusive. Patients with chronic urticaria unresponsive to antihistamines require an extensive workup. In more than 50 cases of chronic urticaria, no etiology is found,...

C1 Inhibitor Related Diseases

Angioedema is a rare, but serious consequence of uncontrolled activation of complement, usually stemming from C1 inhibitor deficiency. Based on the relative levels of functional and antigenic C1 inhibitor, two types of hereditary angioedema have been described. In type I HAE, defective expression of one allele results in low antigenic and functional levels whereas in type II HAE, the concentration of functional C1 inhibitor is low, while the C1 inhibitor antigen level is normal, due to the presence of a nonfunctional mutant protein. Individuals heterozygous for C1 inhibitor mutations typically express 5-30 active C1 inhibitor of normal levels. A third type of HAE with normal C1 inhibitor concentration, so far found only in women, has also been described (Bork et al., 2000). Acquired angioedema (AAE) is mostly antibody mediated (Jackson et al., 1986) or lymphoproliferative disease associated (Cicardi et al., 1996). In AAE the activity of C1 inhibitor is reduced unlike its antigenic...

The Psychosomatic Patient

There are many ways of dealing with psychosomatic patients. First, identify the disorder Do not miss the possible diagnosis of an affective or anxiety disorder. Treatment of somatization is directed toward teaching the patient to cope with the psychological problems. Be aware that somatization operates unconsciously the patient really is suffering. Above all, the patient should never be told that his or her problem is ''in your head.'' Anxiety, fear, and depression are the main psychological problems associated with psychosomatic illness. The list of associated common symptoms and illnesses is long and includes chest pain, headaches, peptic ulcer disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, nausea, vomiting, anorexia nervosa, urticaria, tachycardia, hypertension, asthma, migraine, muscle tension syndromes, obesity, rashes, and dizziness. Answers to an open-ended question such as ''What's been happening in your life '' often provide insight into the problems.

Emergency Department Treatment and Disposition

Medical therapy includes steroids, H1 and H2 histamine blockers, and subcutaneous or intramuscular epinephrine. Chronic angioedema responds better to corticosteroids and H2 blockers. Angioedema. Severe angioedema of the face and tongue requiring emergent cricothyrotomy. (Photo contributor W. Brian Gibler, MD.)

Marc J Buehner Patricia W Cheng

We see that even when there is temporal information so one can reliably predict an event from an earlier observation (e.g., sunrise from a rooster's crowing, a storm from a drop in the barometric reading), correlation need not imply causation. One might think that intervention (i.e., action, manipulation) is what differentiates between covariation and causation When the observations are obtained by intervention, by oneself or others, the covariations are causal otherwise, they are not necessarily causal. A growing body of research is dedicated to the role of intervention in causal learning, discovery, and reasoning (e.g., Gopnik et al., 2004 Lagnado & Sloman, 2004 Steyvers, Tenen-baum, Wagenmakers, & Blum, 2003). Indeed, the general pattern reported is that observations based on intervention allow causal inferences that are not possible with mere observations. However, although intervention generally allows causal inference, it does not guarantee it. Consider a food allergy test...

Clinical Outcome Trials

These studies of the early use of oral ACE inhibitors provided extensive experience with these agents in the acute myocardial infarct setting. Collectively, this relatively unselected (i.e., minimal systolic pressure above 100 mm Hg) use resulted in 5 lives saved per 1000 patients treated.72 Angioedema was a rare but worrisome complication. Hypotension and transient renal dysfunction occurred more commonly with the early use of an ACE inhibitor. Although these data support the broad use of ACE inhibitors, a clinical evaluation and selection of higher risk (i.e., anterior location, higher creatinine kinase level, prior infarction, diabetes, Killip class 2 or greater, or cardiac imaging demonstrating depressed ejection fraction) for treatment would concentrate the benefits and reduce the early exposure of low-risk, low-efficacy patients to potential adverse effects of this therapy.73

Sulfoxides and similar solvents

Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a powerful aprotic solvent that is colorless, odorless, and hygroscopic. Studies have demonstrated that DMSO is effective in promoting the permeation of a number of hydrophilic and lipophilic permeants. It has been found to enhance the permeation of beta blockers (Kai et al., 1993) and ephedrine hydrochloride (Singh et al., 1993). The enhancer effect is reported to be concentration dependent, with concentrations greater than 60 required to show optimum efficacy (Williams and Barry, 2004). However, erythema and wheals of the stratum corneum have been reported at these relatively high concentrations ofDMSO, which have also resulted in protein denaturation (Anigbogu et al., 1995). Human volunteer studies have demonstrated erythema, scaling, contact urticaria, stinging and burning sensations, and some systemic symptoms (Kligman, 1965). The skin penetration mechanisms of the aprotic solvents, and DMSO in particular, are complex. Upon application to human skin,...

Signs and Symptoms Percent

Urticaria and angioedema 85-90 Upper airway angioedema 50-60 Acute onset of an illness (minutes to hours) with involvement of skin and mucosal tissue (e.g., hives, generalized itch and flush, swollen lips, tongue, and uvula) and Skin or mucosal tissue involvement (e.g., hives, generalized itch or flush, swollen lips, tongue, uvula)

Nonsteroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs

Methotrexate typically is given with it to suppress antibody production against the mouse-derived portion of the molecule. Infliximab is delivered via IV infusion every 4 to 8 weeks however, patients may notice benefit within 1 to 4 weeks of receiving the first infusion. Infusion-related reactions including rash, urticaria, flush

Henochschonlein Purpura Clinical Summary

Also known as anaphylactoid purpura, Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis of small vessels characterized by 2- to 10-mm erythematous hemorrhagic papules in a symmetric, acral distribution usually involving the buttocks and extremities (see Fig. 15.23). It is a disease of children (commonly aged 3-12 years) and young adults. The classic exanthem consists of urticarial wheals, erythematous maculopapules, and larger palpable ecchymotic-looking areas. There is often associated abdominal pain (caused by edema and hemorrhage of the intestinal wall) and arthritis. Mucosal involvement is rare however, edema of the scalp, hands, scrotum, and periorbital tissue is not uncommon. Gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal pain, occult and gross bleeding, and intussusception) may precede the rash. Renal involvement is the most frequent and serious complication and usually occurs during the first month. It commonly manifests as microscopic hematuria and may progress to...

Biologic issues affecting applicability

Consider racial or ethnic differences that may alter the risk for the outcome. Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (a class of antihypertensives) increase the risk of angioedema. The risk is three times higher in blacks than in whites 8 . The odds of developing hepatitis with isoniazid use is lower among Asians who are fast acetylators of the drug 9 .

Understanding Food Allergies

The most common food culprits linked to allergic reactions are wheat, shellfish, nuts, soybeans, corn, the protein in cow's milk, and eggs. Furthermore, the organs most commonly affected are the skin (symptoms include skin rashes, hives, itching, and swelling), the respiratory tract (symptoms include difficulty breathing and hay fever), and the gastrointestinal tract (symptoms include nausea, bloating, diarrhea, and vomiting). Some allergic reactions are so severe they can even provoke anaphylactic shock, a life-threatening, whole-body response that requires immediate medical attention.

Rituxan antibody rituximab

Rituxan is jointly marketed by two American companies (IDEC Pharmaceutical and Genentech, California) for short-course outpatient treatment of relapsed or refractory CD20-positive, low-grade or follicular B-cell NHL. Rituxan is a less toxic alternative to chemotherapy and can induce anti-cancer activity by binding to CD20-positive cells, inducing apoptosis, recruiting immune effector functions (i.e. mediating ADCC) and activating complement (Scott, 1998 Hainsworth, 2000). As a single agent, rituximab has been shown to produce a response rate of 50 in patients with relapsed low-grade and follicular NHL. When added to standard chemotherapy in patients with diffuse, large, B-cell NHL, it has also been able to prolong survival in such patients (Dearden, 2002). Treatment-related toxicity, which occurs most often with the first infusion of the antibody, is generally mild. Infusion-related reactions included rigors, nausea, urticaria, fatigue and headache (Dillman, 2002). One advantage of...

Bacterial Meningitis

Hyponatremia, hypersensitivity reaction, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, dizziness, somnolence, diplopia, headache, nausea, ataxia Rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, angioedema, neutropenia, pancreatitis, dizziness, headache, ataxia, nausea, somnolence Thrombocytopenia, hypersensitivity reaction, angioedema, dizziness, somnolence, ataxia, peripheral edema, weight gain

Safety and Tolerability

The safety of rituximab is mainly related to infusion toxicity, a toxicity most MAb have in common (Kimby 2005). These side effects are observed during the infusion or in the first hours after drug infusion and particularly for the first infusion. They include fever, chills, dizziness, nausea, pruritus, throat swelling, cough, fatigue, hypotension and transient bronchospasm in a majority of patients. These symptoms are part of the cytokine-release syndrome. Their intensity correlates with the number of circulating malignant cells at time of infusion. More severe infusional toxicity includes bronchospasm, angioedema and acute lung injury, often associated with high circulating cell counts or pre-existing cardiac or pulmonary disease.

Sulfonamide Antibiotics

Reactions to sulfonamide antibiotics, ranging from mild (most common) to life-threatening (rare), occur in 2 to 4 of healthy patients, with rates as high as 60 in patients with AIDS 7 Anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions almost always occur within 30 minutes but may be up to 90 minutes after exposure, most commonly after parenteral administration. Isolated angioedema or urticaria can occur within minutes to days. Serum sickness occurs within 1 to 2 weeks. Fixed drug eruptions (lesions) occur within a half-hour to 8 hours. These lesions resolve within 2 to 3 weeks after drug removal. The more severe conditions of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis tend to occur 1 to 2 weeks after initiation of therapy. Because trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the drug of choice for patients infected with Pneumocystis carinii, desensitization may be necessary. A history of Stevens-Johnson syndrome or toxic epidermal necrolysis is an absolute contraindication for the...

Mixed Connective Tissue Disease

Clinical Features and Associated Disorders. Primary SS predominantly affects exocrine glands, with lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis of lacrimal and salivary glands. Ocular, oral, and dental complications occur as a result of decreased tear and saliva production. Extraglandular manifestations occur in at least 25 percent of patients. Lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly are common. Cutaneous vasculitis may present with a picture of nonthrombocytopenic purpura or urticaria. Symmetrical, nondeforming arthritis of the small joints occurs in more than 80 percent of patients. Renal disease, usually interstitial nephritis, is seen in up to 40 percent of cases. Less commonly, the lungs may be involved, with interstitial pneumonitis and restrictive or obstructive abnormalities of pulmonary function. Vasculitis, usually localized to the skin, peripheral nervous system, and muscle, occurs in up to 20 percent. Lymphoproliferative disorders occur, and there is an increased risk of lymphoma...

Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

There is no conclusive evidence that CIDP patients have a higher incidence of other medical conditions, including autoimmune disorders. However, associated disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis, chronic active hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, urticaria, eczema, and psoriasis do occur in some CIDP patients.y A CIDP-like disorder may occur in the setting of monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain significance (MGUS), as well as with multiple myeloma, osteosclerotic myeloma and other lymphoproliferative disorders. These disorders are discussed as distinct entities in the following sections.

Psychosomatic aspects of atopic dermatitis

Significance Neurosecratory

The skin organ is extensively supplied with various nerve fibres the sensoric nerves not only conduct afferent nerves from the skin to the CNS but also fulfil efferent neurosecretory functions. Ascending conduction pathways supply information to the thalamus, where the switching to the higher cortical centres takes place, which are responsible for the transformation of cognitive information. Descending pathways lead the sensoric information back to the spinal cord to effect the peripheral autonomous answers (perspiration, vasodilatation, etc.) The effect of some neuropeptides (SP, CGRP, VIP, NPY) are known SP, for example, is a potent vasodilator and raises the permeability of blood vessels intradermal injection of SP leads to reddening of the skin and urticaria, whereby the effect of SP is 100 times more potent than hista-mine. SP-induced secretion from cutaneous mast cells raises the leukocyte count in the tissue, strengthens the phagocytosis through...

Patient Encounter 1

Penicillins and cephalosporins both have a f-lactam ring joined to an S-containing ring structure (penicillins a thiazolidine ring, cephalosporins a dihy-drothiazine ring). The extent of cross-allergenicity appears to be relatively low, with an estimate of around 4 .12 Cross-allergenicity is less likely with newer generation cephalosporins compared to the first generation agents. Anaphylactic reactions to cephalosporins are rare, with a predicted range of 0.0001 to 0.1 . Minor skin reactions including urticaria, exanthem, and pruritis are the most common allergic reac-

Skin Disorders And Clinical Trial Methods Adapting Study Design To Setting And Disease

For quite different reasons, there are also common skin conditions where randomised clinical trials have been rarely performed. These conditions include several varieties of eczematous dermatitis (e.g., nummular eczema), psoriasis (e.g., guttate psoriasis) and urticaria (e.g., pressure urticaria), a number of exanthematic reactions (e.g., pytiriasis rosea), rosacea, and common

Intermediate Complications Under Anesthesia

Allergic reactions during anesthesia are usually mild and easily managed. These reactions can be seen with the administration of various medications, especially antibiotics, associated with surgery. Allergic reactions in the operating room are increasingly associated with the use of latex products (like gloves). Severe allergic reactions (anaphylactic reactions) are uncommon. Allergic reactions vary in intensity from mild redness of the skin and rash to a full-blown anaphylactic reaction with severe respiratory distress, wheezing, generalized hives, and cardiovascular collapse.

C1 Inhibitor Deficiency and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

There are two published investigations of twins with hereditary C1 esterase deficiency. Identical male twins who both exhibited classic symptoms of hereditary angioedema and marked depression of C4 had discoid lupus that appeared through both clinical and immunologic studies to be typical discoid lupus erythematosus (112). In the second set of twins, identical girls with complete absence of C1 esterase inhibitor, one remains normal while the other, since age 6 years, has manifested classic symptoms of hereditary angioedema (113). At age 14 years she developed classic SLE with a positive anti-dsDNA antibody and profuse proliferative glomerulonephritis. C4 levels in the affected twin were 4 of normal, whereas the twin without clinical hereditary angioedema or SLE had C4 levels that were chronically in the range of 1015 of normal. The findings suggest that chronic low C4 is not sufficient to predispose to lupus disease in patients with C1 esterase deficiency disease very low levels may...

Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure Clinical Summary

Phototoxicity should be suspected in any patient with severe or exaggerated sunburn. Photoallergy is easily misdiagnosed as allergic eczema or contact dermatitis, especially since onset is often delayed up to 2 days after exposure. Phytophotodermatitis may mimic severe sunburn or contact dermatitis, especially rhus dermatitis. Endogenous photosensitizers (endogenous photodermatoses) include solar urticaria, porphyria cutanea tarda, polymorphous light eruption, and systemic lupus erythrematosus. These may be provoked by visible light as well as by UV radiation.

Newer Anticonvulsants

Lamotrigine is the best studied of the newer anticonvulsants. While showing efficacy for treatment of depression and for maintenance treatment in bipolar patients, it may be less efficacious in the treatment of acute mania (Leadbetter et al., 2002 American Psychiatric Association, 2002). Along with many open-label studies, there is one large multisite placebo-controlled trial of lamotrigine monotherapy for treatment of depression in outpatients with bipolar disorder (Calabrese et al., 1999). In this study, 200 mg day of lamotrigine demonstrated significant antidepressant effects in over 50 percent of these patients without inducing mania or rash. Lamotrigine inhibits voltage-gated sodium channels and reduces glutamate. It is absorbed within 1 to 3 hr and has a half-life of 25 hr. Rash can occur in up to 8 percent of adults, and serious rash requiring hospitalization can be seen in up to 0.5 percent of patients. Because of the possibility of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal...

Aspirin and Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs

Aspirin and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can induce allergic and pseudoallergic reactions. Because these drugs are so widely used, with much over-the-counter use, the health care professional must have a basic understanding of the types of reactions that can occur and how to prevent them. Three types of reactions occur bronchospasm with rhinoconjunctivitis, urticaria angioedema, and anaphylaxis. Remember that patients with gastric discomfort or bruising from these agents may describe themselves as being allergic, however these are not allergic or pseudoallergic reactions. Two specific conditions aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) and chronic idiopathic urticaria, are important because they are commonly seen. AERD may include asthma, rhinitis with nasal polyps, and aspirin sensitivity.17 Upon exposure to aspirin or a NSAID, patients with AERD experience rhinorrhea, nasal conges tion, conjunctivitis, laryngospasm, and asthma. Chronic idiopathic urticaria...

Hereditary C4 Deficiency

Absence of both C4B genes is associated with increased risk of IgA nephropathy and glomerulonephritis (43). Absence of at least one C4B gene, which leads to low levels of plasma C4, has been associated with dermatological diseases, specifically discoid lupus erythematosus, angioedema, and urticaria (44). C4 deficiencies have also been shown to be associated with anti-SS-A antibodies and with anti-cardiolipin antibodies in blacks (45-46).

Pharmacologic Therapy

Aspirin is effective for mild-to-moderate pain however, the risk of GI irritation and bleeding limits frequent use of this drug for pain management. Direct effects of aspirin on the GI mucosa and irreversible platelet inhibition contribute to this risk, which can occur even at low doses. Hypersensitivity reactions are also possible and might occur in 25 of patients with coexsiting asthma, nasal polyps, or chronic urticaria. Of additional concern is the potential for cross-sensitivity of other NSAIDs in

Histamine release and pruritus

Morphine releases histamine from mast cells, unrelated to the action on opioid receptors. It is related to speed of injection and concentration. Local effects include urticaria and itching and systemic effects include bronchoconstriction and hypotension. Pethidine and other phenylpiperidino opioids are unlikely to produce this effect.

Anaesthesia For Radiological Procedures

Coronary and cerebral angiography are associated with a high risk of reaction. Other major risk factors are patients with allergies, asthma, extremes of age (under 1 and over 60 years), cardiovascular disease and a history of previous contrast medium reaction. Fatal reactions are rare, occurring in about 1 in 100 000 procedures. Nausea and vomiting are common (consider prophylactic antiemetic), which may progress to urticaria, hypotension and bron-chospasm. Adequate hydration is important, as patients undergoing contrast dye procedures usually have an induced osmotic diuresis which can exacerbate pre-existing renal dysfunction. A urinary catheter may be useful for patients undergoing long procedures.

Description of Lesions

Esquema Paisatge Les Coves

Hives, insect bite It is not essential for the examiner to make a definitive diagnosis of all skin disease. A careful description of the lesion, the pattern of distribution, and the arrangement of the lesion often points to a group of related disease states with similar manifesting dermatologic signs (e.g., confluent macular rashes, bullous diseases, grouped vesicles, papular rashes on an erythematous base). For example, grouped urticarial lesions with a central depression are suggestive of insect bites. Figure 8-24 lists the terms used to describe the configurations of lesions.

Roseola Infantum Exanthem Subitum Clinical Summary

This is followed by defervescence and the appearance of the typical exanthem which is composed of erythematous macules and papules on the trunk, neck, proximal extremities, and occasionally the face. The rash fades in a few days. The causative agent in most cases is human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). The differential diagnosis includes common viruses such as measles, rubella, parvovirus B19, or infectious mononucleosis. Bacterial infections (eg, scarlet fever), drug reactions, and other skin conditions such as guttate psoriasis, papular urticaria, and erythema multiforme are also included in the differential.

Cold Panniculitis Popsicle Panniculitis Clinical Summary

Cold panniculitis represents acute cold injury to the subcutaneous fat. It manifests as erythematous, indurated plaques on exposed skin, especially the perioral areas and cheeks. Lesions appear 24 to 72 hours after exposure to cold and gradually soften and return to normal over 1 to 2 weeks usually without permanent sequelae. This phenomenon is caused by subcutaneous fat solidification and necrosis when exposed to low temperature. It is much more common in infants. It is believed to occur because of the inherent properties of infants' fat containing higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids. The differential diagnosis includes facial cellulitis, frostbite, trauma, pressure erythema, giant urticaria, and contact dermatitis.

What types of adverse reactions can occur during a CTmyelogram procedure

Initially patients may experience discomfort during intrathecal injection of the nonionic water soluble contrast agent. After injection, patients may experience an anaphylactoid (idiosyncratic) reaction (urticaria, facial and laryngeal edema, bronchospasm, hypotension) or a nonidiosyncratic reaction due to the adverse effect of contrast on a specific organ system (nephrotoxicity, cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial ischemia, vasovagal reaction). Specific treatment depends on the exact clinical circumstance.

Box 291 Useful Internet sites for information regarding MR safety

The contrast agents most commonly used for MRI are based on gadolinium. The incidence of side effects is low (2-4 ), particularly as compared with iodinated contrast agents.11 Reported side effects include headaches, nausea and vomiting, pain at the site of injection and hives. There have also been reports of transient elevations in serum iron and bilirubin levels which resolve within 2448 h.20 The incidence of anaphylaxis has been estimated at 1 100,000.10 The safety of administering gadolinium-based agents to patients with impaired renal function has not been fully established. However, several studies suggest that it is well tolerated.2122

Clinical Summary

LCV is associated with many chronic diseases (connective tissue diseases, malignancies, viral hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and others), medications (penicillin, sulfonamides, thiazides, allopurinol, phenytoin, NSAIDs, PTU, IV dye, and G-CSF), infections (group A -hemolytic streptococci, hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV), and idiopathic disorders (Henoch-Schonlein purpura HSP , acute hemorrhagic edema of childhood, and urticarial vasculitis). Urticarial vasculitis presents with painful urticaria. The lesions are distinguished from common urticaria by their persistence (lasting over 24 hours) and resolution with hyperpigmentation. Urticarial vasculitis can be seen with systemic lupus erythematosus, viral infections (HCV, HBV), medications (including fluoxetine and NSAIDs), and malignancies.


Reactions range from mild (flushing and rashes) to severe (dyspnea, bronchospasm, urticaria, and hypotension). IgE-mediated type I reactions are the most common. To reduce the risk, patients are routinely premedicated with corticosteroids and Hi and H2 receptor antagonists. The platinum compounds have produced anemia, probably via a cytotoxic immunologic mechanism.

Phase Iii Trials

Accepted that 'in any medical study every patient should be assured of the best proven diagnostic and therapeutic method'. As a consequence, the use of placebo should be proscribed when a 'proven' therapeutic method exists. In spite of these principles, studies which breach the ethical principle are still commonly conducted with the approval of regulatory agencies and institutional review boards. It is widely accepted that placebo-controlled trials have high internal validity, but they may be difficult to apply to clinical practice in situations where alternative interventions of proven efficacy already exist. In these circumstances, the information of clinical value is the effect size of the new intervention as compared with the alternative treatment strategy. The use of placebo may sometimes undermine the validity of the study if the treatment falls short of patients' expectations, resulting in reduced compliance and a large dropout rate. Some years ago a placebo-controlled trial...


C1-inhibitor is available for clinical use as substitution therapy in hereditary angioedema (HAE). Notably, the pathophysiology of HAE is closely related to the release of bradykinin and the main effect of Cl-inhibitor is to reduce bradykinin formation through inhibition of the kallikrein kinin system. From this point of view, HAE is not a complement-mediated disease, and it should be emphasized that the effect of Cl-inhibitor, when used for treatment of other diseases than HAE, is not necessarily complement-dependent, but may well be explained by inhibition of other proteins.


Dermal contact and ingestion of metals is known to result in an immune response causing hives, eczema, redness, and itching. Resultant metallic degradation products may sensitize the body and generate similar effects. A temporal association between implantation and clinical manifestations of these symptoms has been shown. Implant-related hypersensitivity reactions are typically cell-mediated reactions (type IV delayed-type hypersen-sitivity).


The royal jelly increases her life span from three months to five years, and she develops the ability to produce twice her weight in eggs. The growth and productivity of the queen bee is due to both the large amount of honey ingested plus the enzymes and hormones in the workers' secretions, which the queen bee receives along with the honey. Propolis is the waxy material collected by bees from the buds of trees and used to fill cracks in their hives. It has no demonstrated health value. Pollen is gathered from flowers by bees and brought back to their hive. Harvesters of bee pollen place devices in the hives that strip the pollen from the bees. Because bee pollen comes from many different flowers, its nutritional value varies. Advocates note that the composition of pollen varies according to the geographic region it comes from and the time of year. Despite any variation, however, pollen is composed of sugar, protein, fat, water, vitamins, and minerals. These ingredients may sound...

Appendix D Glossary

Angioedema Swelling similar to urticaria (hives), but the swelling occurs beneath the skin instead of on the surface. Angioedema is characterized by deep swelling around the eyes and lips and sometimes of the hands and feet. If it proceeds rapidly, it can lead to airway obstruction and suffocation, and it should therefore be treated as a medical emergency.

Gell and Coombs

Type I reactions occur when the drug or its bound hapten incites an IgE antibody response. IgE binds to high-affinity receptors on mast cells and basophils. When the original antigen cross-links cell-bound IgE, the effector cell releases enormous amounts of preformed mediators, producing the well-known symptoms of immediate hyper-sensitivity urticaria, rhinitis, bronchoconstriction, and anaphylaxis. Type III or immune complex reactions also involve IgG antibody production. In this case, when the concentration of the sensitizing drug or hapten is in slight excess to the antibody, the two combine in the serum, producing lattices of antigen-antibody complexes. These are deposited, particularly in vessel walls. They activate complement, causing vasculitis. The classic forms of type III reaction are serum sickness (usually including arthralgias, fever, malaise, and urticaria that develop 7 to 14 days after exposure to the causative antigen) and the localized Arthus reaction, a local...


In addition, the instillation of opaque contrast material augments the precision of needle placement provided by radiography. Contrast dyes, especially nonionic formulations, have a lower risk of CNS toxicity when administered near the neuraxis than ionic agents. Contrast agents may precipitate local and systemic toxicity. Signs of toxicity may range from rash, or urticaria, to bronchospasm and anaphylaxis.


Dextran 70 injection BP (6 dextran) is used most frequently in 5 glucose or in 0.9 saline. The average molecular weight of the material is 70 000 Da. Dextrans should not be administered to patients with renal impairment, severe congestive heart failure or thrombocytopenia. The dextrans are believed to interfere with the haemostatic mechanism if transfused in large quantity and cause difficulty with grouping and compatibility tests in the laboratory by promotion of rouleaux. This is less of a problem with the introduction into blood transfusion laboratories of gel technology. No acutely bleeding patient should receive more than 1.5 L and, as unpredictable allergic reactions may occur with erythema, bron-chospasm, urticaria and hypotension, the patient should be observed carefully during the first few minutes of the infusion. If such a reaction occurs, usually as a result of the presence of anti-dextran antibodies, the infusion should be stopped immediately and resuscitation measures...

From Rf

All desensitization procedures are expected to produce mild symptoms in the patient at some point, and the patient must be made to understand this before doses are started. Mild sensitivity to the drug still remains, and large dose increases as well as missing doses should be avoided. Late complications, such as urticaria, may occur with Type I desensitization, and serum sickness or hemolytic anemia may also occur with high-dose therapy in allergic, desensitized patients.


Almost all patients with anaphylaxis express cutaneous symptoms, the most common of which are urticaria and angioedema. However, anaphylactic events can occur without any cutaneous manifestation. The most common cause is probably the rapid onset of hypotension and shock, which diverts blood flow from the skin. Anaphylaxis can clearly be the cause of syncope without any other manifestation and therefore must be considered as a cause of any syncopal episode. Table 20-5 lists signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis and their frequency (Lieberman et al., 2005). Criteria have been established for the diagnosis of anaphylaxis (Box 20-4) (Sampson et al., 2006). Anaphylaxis usually requires at least two-system involvement in most cases the skin is involved, and respiratory, vascular, or gastrointestinal symptoms accompany skin involvement. Single-system involvement (usually the skin) may be sufficient when this symptom appears after exposure to a known allergen (e.g., person known to be allergic to...

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