Vaginal Discharge Solution
Domestic dogs are capable of mating at any time during the year, while their wild relatives only produce sperm within a breeding season. The bitch (in domestic and wild species) is seasonally monoestrous. During the oestrus period the bitch displays visual signs of her season, including a swollen vulva, and gives off olfactory signals via vaginal discharge and increased frequency of urination. Bitches may develop a preference for specific mating partners and appear to prefer animals with whom they are already familiar. Mating behaviour includes precopulatory play, including sniffing, snout
For a few days after whelping, there will be a vaginal discharge known as the lochia, which is greenish-black to start with changing to a watery red brown discharge as the days go by. It is important to check the bitch's teats for signs of inflammation or mastitis. If you are in any way concerned about this, veterinary advice should be sought immediately.
BV is a common infection and a recurrent cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age. BV is categorized by an overgrowth of anaerobic organisms such as Gardenella vaginalis, Prevotella species, Mycoplasma hominis, and Mobilun- from 4.5 to 7. BV is the most prevalent cause of vaginal discharge and malodor. epidemiology
Is normal, and surgical debridement the exception. Accordingly, the consequences may be only appreciated in a subsequent pregnancy. If the patient does present before this, hemorrhage and or vaginal discharge may prompt internal examination. A defect may be identified on palpation. Curettage may be undertaken and may retrieve inflammatory exudate, degenerating decidua, polypoid endometrium or fragments of necrotic myometrium that have prolapsed into the endocervical lumen from the internal edge of the Cesarean section scar. Sometimes, quite large pieces of myometrial tissue with edema and coagulative necrosis are obtained. This myonecrosis, or incisional necrosis, is caused by local ischemia4. Remodelling of blood vessels may influence implantation. Implantation on either a normally healed or on a diseased scar will not have the protective effect of the decidua vera (see below), and so postpartum separation is less likely to occur. A Cesarean section at first birth is associated with...
Vaginitis is an inflammation of the vagina and vulva that is marked by pain, itching, and vaginal discharge. Normal vaginal discharge consists of mucous secretions from the cervix and vagina, as well as exfoliated vaginal cells. A normal vaginal discharge is thin and transparent and has little odor. When the normal bacterial flora in the vagina is disturbed, one or more organisms can multiply out of their normal proportions. This change in the normal flora may also make the vagina more susceptible to other invading organisms. The rapid growth of organisms produces an excess of waste products that irritate tissues, cause a burning sensation and itching, and produce a discharge with an unpleasant odor. The discharges caused by different organisms have different appearances. Table 19-1 lists the characteristics of common vaginal discharges. Table 19-2 summarizes the clinical features of genital ulcerations.
Aerobic vaginitis is characterized by purulent vaginal discharge with a dominant abnormal aerobic flora. Patients experience a foul-smelling nonfishy discharge, and examination may reveal erythema, inflammation, and ulcers of the posterior fornix. Although culture is the gold standard, the diagnosis is usually one of exclusion, with pH greater than 6.0, white blood cells (WBCs) on microscopy, and absence
Though women have long been known to harbor the organism, only recently have distinct clinical syndromes been identified. Part of the delay is due to the fact that asymptomatic infection probably occurs more frequently in women, and little clinical attention is paid to the normal vaginal discharge. Infection of the female urethra occurs in 70 to 90 percent of women with gonorrhea, but rarely in the absence of concomitant infection of the endocervix. The more important lower tract manifestation of gonorrhea in women is infection of the uterine cervix. A syndrome of purulent or mucopurulent endocervical discharge characterizes the infection. Though the clinical diagnosis may be complicated by the coexistence of infection with other pathogenic organisms, cervical mucopus is clearly not normal and requires systematic bacteriologic investigation.
Genitourinary frequency of voids wet diapers strength of urinary stream crying with voiding, vaginal discharge, skin irritation in diaper area. In the older infant, there should be periods when the diaper is dry, indicating the development of an increased bladder capacity.
A scientifically unacceptable study of the effect of aromatherapy on endometriosis, reported only at an aromatherapy conference (Worwood, 1996), involved 22 aromatherapists who treated a total of 17 women in two groups over 24 weeks. One group was initially given massage with essential oils and then not touched for the second period, while the second group had the two treatments reversed. Among the many parameters measured were constipation, vaginal discharge, fluid retention, abdominal and pelvic pain, degree of feeling well, renewed vigor, depression, and tiredness. The data were presented as means (or averages, possibly, as this was not stated) but without standard errors of mean (SEM) and lacked any statistical analyses. Unfortunately, the study has been accepted by many aromatherapists as being a conclusive proof of the value in treating endometriosis using aromatherapy.
Microscopic examination of vaginal discharge is 60 to 70 sensitive in women. A first voided urine specimen or urethral swab for microscopic exam may be helpful in identifying the protozoa. Culture for Trichomonas, which requires a special medium, may be necessary to identify this infection accurately in men. Trichomonas is effectively treated with a single 2-g dose of metronidazole (Table 16-11). For non-STI causes of vaginal discharge, see the online discussion at www.expertconsult.com.
The symptoms associated with cervical cancer include abnormal vaginal bleeding or vaginal discharge. Abnormal bleeding can occur in several ways as spotting or bleeding between periods, spotting after intercourse, or prolonged and or heavy menstrual flow. Discharge may be bloody, yellow or brown in color, and may be associated with an unpleasant odor, which usually reflects degeneration of malignant tissue.
Within the first 24 hours, the mother's pulse rate drops and her temperature may be slightly elevated. Generally, the white blood cell count increases during labor, with a marked leuko-cytosis (to 20,000 ) occurring in the first 24 hours postpartum. The vaginal discharge is grossly bloody (lochia rubra) for the first 3 or 4 days. During the next few to 10 days, the lochia becomes more serous and pinkish brown and decreases in amount (lochia serosa). Finally, 7 to 10 days postpartum, the lochia becomes pale yellow-white and decreases even more in volume. Urine output temporarily increases and might contain protein and sugar, reflecting a maternal diuresis. This loss of fluid with the accompanying decrease in intravascular volume artificially elevates the hematocrit for a few days. The uterus involutes progressively after 5 to 7 days, it should be firm and nontender, extending midway between the symphysis and umbilicus. By 2 weeks the uterus should no longer be palpable abdominally....
In the term female infant, the labia majora should cover the labia minora and clitoris. There should be a fingertip space between the vagina and the anus. If not, the possibility of sexual ambiguity exists. A whitish vaginal discharge is common during the first few days after birth and is an effect of estrogen the discharge may become bloody later in the first week from withdrawal of maternal estrogen. The examiner should inspect the urethral meatus and vaginal orifice by placing a gloved thumb and index finger on the child's perineum while pressing downward and laterally on the buttocks.
Discharge from the penis is a continuous or intermittent flow of fluid from the urethra. Ask the patient whether he has ever had a discharge and, if he has, whether it was bloody or purulent. Bloody penile discharges are associated with ulcerations, neoplasms, or urethritis. Purulent discharges are thick and yellowish-green and may be associated with gonococcal urethritis or chronic prostatitis. Determine when the discharge was first noted. Figure 18-7 shows a purulent penile discharge in a man with gonococcal urethritis. Gonorrhea is caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. After exposure, approximately 25 of men and more than 50 of women contract the disease. In men, the acute symptoms of dysuria and a purulent urethral discharge begin 2 to 10 days after exposure. In women, a vaginal discharge and dysuria develop days to weeks after exposure however, in up to 50 of women, the infection may be asymptomatic.
Postsurgical vesicovaginal fistulas usually present 7 to 21 days after surgery. Most patients have urinary incontinence or persistent vaginal discharge. If the fistula is very small, leakage may be intermittent, occurring only at maximum bladder capacity or with particular body position. Other signs and symptoms include unexplained fever hema-turia recurrent cystitis or pyelonephritis vaginal, suprapubic, or flank pain and abnormal urinary stream (11).
Gonorrhea has an incubation period of 2 to 7 days. In men, the most common manifestation is urethritis, characterized by purulent, usually copious urethral discharge with dysuria however, up to 10 of men are asymptomatic. Women may also develop urethritis and complain of dysuria. More commonly, however, women develop cervicitis, which is often asymptomatic. If symptomatic, women may complain of increased vaginal discharge or vaginal spotting, particularly after intercourse. On speculum examination, the cervix is friable, often with a mucopurulent endocervical exudate. Patients with gonococcal conjunctivitis have chemosis and copious purulent exudate untreated, these patients can develop endophthalmitis and perforation of the globe. Untreated gonorrhea may disseminate and more commonly does so in women. Disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI) typically presents with a monoarticular septic arthritis usually involving the knees, ankles, elbows, or wrists. Skin lesions are necrotic...