A vegetarian diet, when properly followed, can be one of the healthiest diets out there. Benefits of the vegetarian diet include Decreased obesity Vegans are rarely obese and on the average, ovolacto-vegetarians are leaner than those who eat meat. However, being vegetarian doesn't guarantee a slim figure. If you eat foods that are high in fat, you can consume as many or more calories than meat eaters. Less risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) Vegetarians tend to have lower blood cholesterol levels and diets with lower overall saturated fat content. Vegetarian eating covers broad territory and can run the gamut from people who avoid all animal products to people who simply refrain from eating a few select animal foods. Here's a look at the assortment of vegetarian-style eaters Vegans This is the strictest type of vegetarian (sort of the pope of all vegetarians). Vegans abstain from eating or using all animal products, from eating meat, dairy, and eggs, to wearing wool, silk, or...
Whether you're dining out to be social or because you just don't feel like cooking, if you're trying to stick to a vegetarian diet, it can be tough to get satisfied, let alone nourished. Here are some tips to get through a night out without starving When your dining buddies won't have anything to do with a vegetarian restaurant, suggest Chinese, Vietnamese, Thai, or Italian. There's always a bunch of vegetarian entrees on the menu. If there aren't any vegetarian entrees, make up a full meal by selecting a few side dishes. For example, have a baked potato or a house salad and ask whether they'll serve a side of beans. Better yet, request a special vegetarian entree. Most restaurants can be pretty accommodating. Feel free to make substitutions and special requests. For instance, change a bacon, lettuce, and tomato sandwich to a cheese, lettuce, and tomato sandwich, or change an order of chicken fajitas to veggie fajitas. Pregnant vegetarians need to pay extra attention to their diets....
People who eat plant products primarily or exclusively are called vegetarians. Eating only vegetables used to be considered an exotic or religious practice. The diets of Seventh-Day Adventists, Hindus (who revere and protect cows), 1960s commune enthusiasts, and most of the underdeveloped world do not eat meat and rely on less expensive, more-available plant-grown food. As it turns out, the less expensive, plant-based diet, with some qualifications, is much more healthful than is the typical meat-oriented diet. Careful Vitamin D and especially vitamin B12 deficiencies may occur with vegetarian diets.
Most fresh veggies can be judged for freshness and quality by their appearance closely examine your produce and avoid any decaying or bruising. Another piece of advice is to buy only what you need for the next few days. Fresh veggies will go bad if they sit around for a long time. If you don't shop often, or you don't have the time to wash and chop your vegetables, your best bet is to stuff your freezer. Frozen vegetables come in a variety of combinations (cut, whole, chopped, and pureed, along with medleys of premixed veggie concoctions), and all you have to do is pop them in a pot to cook. Even lazy people have no excuse. What's more, the freezer keeps the nutrients locked in, so there's no rush to eat them before they go bad. Also, frozen
Deficiencies are uncommon but cats require a source of preformed vitamin A, which is only found in animal tissue, and thus theoretically could become deficient if fed a vegetarian diet. Vitamin A toxicity is fairly common in cats receiving a diet high in liver or following oversupplementation with cod liver oil, since these foodstuffs contain abundant amounts of preformed vitamin A. Clinical signs of vitamin A toxicity include liver damage and painful bone disease, especially of the cervical vertebrae and long bones of the forelimb.
Varied convictions lie behind people's decisions to adopt full or partial vegetarian diets. Some believe that it is more natural for humankind to forego animal meats, as we lack the flesh-tearing teeth and short intestines of carnivorous animals, but share with vegetarian mammals the flat molars to grind plants and seeds and the long intestines needed to break down and absorb plant foods. Some people believe that perhaps humans did not evolve to become meat eaters. Some view the slaughter of animals as cruel and immoral, as did those who founded the American Vegetarian Society in 1850. Those nineteenth-century reformers also believed that meat consumption was immoral, calling meat a stimulant. Many are drawn today to the habits of early cultures that practiced a more aesthetic, vegetarian lifestyle. That such diets may have been imposed by ecological or economic necessity does not diminish their appeal.
Scientific research has documented the relationship between vegetarian diets with no or very low cholesterol and decreased risk of heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and colon cancer. Plant-based foods contain no cholesterol. Cholesterol exists only in animal products. Strict vegetarian diets are free of cholesterol, but they are not free of fat.
Total or partial, a well-balanced vegetarian diet is good for your health. Even cutting back on animal meats and full-fat dairy products helps, as does increasing your intake of fresh fruits and vegetables. Vegetarian diets also are less expensive. If you now eat like the average American and want to move toward a more vegetarian diet, start gradually. Begin by reducing meat and changing to low- or no-fat dairy products. At the same time, introduce increased amounts of fiber-containing vegetables and grains gradually, so that your system has a chance to adjust. Neither total nor extreme vegetarianism is necessary to experience health benefits. There are many Internet websites about vegetarian diets, including one produced by the U.S. National Institutes of Health www.nlm.nih.gov medlineplus vegetariandiet.html The Internet also contains many websites about nutrition generally. Numerous vegetarian cookbooks are available in libraries, health-food stores, bookstores and the Internet.
Despite his personal reserve, Leonardo was the exemplary Renaissance man. By reputation, he was gentle and generous, and he was an accomplished musician and a pleasant, witty conversationalist. Leonardo developed a philosophy akin to St. Francis of Assisi's early in his life. He had a reverence for all living things and frequently bought caged birds just so he could set them free. He became a vegetarian because he did not believe one should ever kill a living creature. It is a paradox that Leonardo, who was reputed to be unable to harm a fly, nevertheless expended considerable amounts of his genius designing engines of war. In the course of his career, he invented some of the most gruesome devices to grind and rend the flesh of enemy soldiers. Without the faintest moral compunction, he solicited employment from the infamous Cesare Borgia and left his post as Borgia's military engineer only when he discovered that a fellow worker of his, also in Borgia's employ, had been strangled to...
He finally abandoned these customs, and found solace, and a public platform, in vegetarianism. Gandhi believed that a vegetarian diet would satisfy the requirements of the body and serve an economic purpose by being cost-effective he thus regarded it not only as a spiritual practice but also as a practical one. He wrote The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism as well as several papers. In his Autobiography, Gandhi noted that vegetarianism was the beginning of his oath to Brahmacarya chastity or celibacy or sexual abstinence to achieve Brahmacarya, one should first learn to overpower gastronomic desires. Strangely, at times he indulged in faddish dietetic experiments that sometimes came near to killing him. Some members of the Vegetarian Society were also members of the Theosophical Society. This Society established in 1875, was dedicated to the study of Buddhist, Christian, and Hindu scriptures. They encouraged Gandhi to join them in reading the Bhagavad Gita, both in translation as well as...
Substituting steaks, burgers, and franks with tofu, tempeh, miso, and veggie burgers can work to your advantage. (You vegetarians are definitely on to something.) That's because soy foods contain phytoestrogens called isoflavones, weak estrogens that help fight against certain cancers, including prostate. However, soy protein may sometimes be contraindicated for women with Although the research is preliminary regarding the amount we should consume, everyone can benefit by shifting from an animal-based to a plant-based diet. The best soy sources include soybeans, tempeh, tofu, soy protein isolate (dry), textured soy protein (TVP), dry soy concentrate, and soy milk.
Myself) who recommend a vegetarian diet with not only no meat, chicken, or fish, but no animal fats, no dairy (cream, butter, cow's milk, or cheese), and little vegetable fat. Their reasoning has been as follows But there are still many nutritionists and physicians who are doubtful whether a child over the age of two years on a vegetarian diet (without meats, chicken,
All vegetarians can easily meet their protein needs. Protein doesn't discriminate it's found in both animal and plant foods. Low-fat dairy and eggs can provide generous amounts of protein for vegetarians who dare to eat them, and the vegans in the crowd should become close pals with tofu, nuts, seeds, lentils, and tempeh. Flip back to Chapter 3 to refresh your memory on complementary proteins that is, making a complete protein (a protein containing all of the essential amino acids) by combining two or more incomplete plant proteins.
Not only do you have to get all of the necessary RDA of calcium, protein, B-12, and other nutrients, yet another concern for the strict vegetarian is getting a fair share of zinc. Although this mineral is found in whole-grain products, tofu, nuts, seeds, and wheat germ, our bodies absorb much less plant zinc than animal zinc. This is because phytic acid (a substance in the fiber) combines with the zinc and prevents it from being fully absorbed. Therefore, vegetarians need to pay particular attention to getting an abundance of this mineral. Cup of vegetarian chili topped
London in the 1880s was a good place to stimulate Shaw's curious mind. The ideas of such thinkers as Darwin, Marx, Spencer, and the Mills created an intense intellectual climate in which people could discuss and argue scientific, social, philosophical, and political issues. During this time Shaw became a lifelong believer in vegetarianism. He joined the Land Reform Union and the Fabian Society, both of which were middle-class socialist groups.
Preparation Blanche the washed and sliced celery roots in the vegetable stock. Choose your favorite cookie cutter, like heart or star, and cut them out of the blanched celery. Whisk the egg and stir in the essential oil variation of your choice. Marinate the celery stars and hearts, then coat them with coconut flakes or sesame seeds and fry them until they have a delicious golden brown color. To serve, top them with a small amount of the essential oil seasoning. They are great to accompany salads, baked potatoes with sour cream, and other vegetarian dishes or if you prefer, beef creations.
Preparation Remove long, thin shreds of orange rind, using a grater (zester). Scrape it firmly along the surface of the fruit. Remove the white layer of the oranges then slice the oranges and remove the pits. Finely chop the onions. Peel the mangoes and cut them into small chunks. Mix honey, syrup, chile powder, and vinegar with 1 teaspoon of the CAPRI salt no. 5 and boil it in a huge saucepan until the honey melts, stir it well. Add mangoes, onions, dates, oranges, and the half of the shredded orange rind. Then lower the heat and let it simmer for 1 h, until the mixture has formed a thick mass. Stir in the rest of the shredded orange rind and the chosen essential oil vinegar no. 3. Then emulsify the pure EURO ASIA condiment intermixture into the CAPRI syrup no. 4 and stir it in the chutney. Use the rest of the CAPRI salt no. 5 to add spice. Fill the mixture into sterilized warm preserving jars, store them cold and dark. Nice to serve with the Chevre chaude or the crispy wild...
When assessing a patient for PN, attention should be given to patients with special personal dietary choices (e.g., vegetarians, vegans) or religious beliefs (e.g., Jehovah's Witness). These rare situations may present unique challenges for clinicians. Most nutrients used in PN preparations are usually from synthetic sources (e.g., crystalline amino acids) or vegetable sources (e.g., triglycerides used in IV lipid emulsions), with the only exception usually being egg phospholipids used in IV lipid emulsions. Discuss these issues for patients with specific needs who require PN so that a plan can be developed to provide appropriate nutrition support therapy.
Another pattern consists of discrepancies between our shoulds and our tendencies to respond to them in a reactant way. In this discrepancy, the movement toward achieving the characteristics of the Should self is countered by a Reactant self that responds negatively and oppositionally to those directives. While Brehm and Brehm (1981) and others who have written about reactance have emphasized its interpersonal determinants, we believe that reactance is a phenomenon that can also occur intrapersonally, i.e., when we are the one who both gives and receives the directive. Just as directives from others may be perceived as limiting our freedoms, our directives to ourselves (our shoulds ) are also experienced as limiting our freedoms and may elicit reactance and oppositional behavior. A few years ago, the first author decided to begin a vegetarian diet. Even though he typically ate meat only once every few weeks, he chose to eliminate meat from his diet by telling himself, in effect, You...
As to factors related to lifestyle, reports on the effects of diet on serum testosterone levels do not always agree, but available data suggest that diet influences testosterone levels mainly indirectly through changes in SHBG levels, fiber-rich, vegetarian diets being associated with higher SHBG and testosterone levels than western-type diets and more particularly those diets with high fat content (Adlercreutz 1990 Belanger et al. 1989 Key et al. 1990 Meikle et al. 1990 Reed et al. 1987). It is not clear to what extent changes in SHBG related to diet might be mediated through changes in insulin secretion, vegetarians having generally lower fasting insulin levels than omnivores. In men aged 40 to 70 years in the Massachusetts Male Aging Study fiber intake and protein intake but not carbohydrate, fat or total caloric intake were independent positive and negative determinants, respectively, of serum SHBG (Longcope etal. 2000).
Several nonpharmacologic interventions exist for the management of dysmenorrhea. Among these, topical heat therapy, exercise, and following a low-fat vegetarian diet all have been shown to reduce the intensity of the dysmenorrhea.11,14 Dietary changes also may shorten the duration of dysmenorrhea. These interventions require little time and minimal cost and are associated with little risk. Other nonpharmacologic options that may be considered before or, in most cases, after a trial of pharmacologic interventions include the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), acupressure, and acupuncture.11
Many of you say that you are vegetarian so many, in fact, that a study published in 2001 found adolescent vegetarians as a group are more likely than their non-vegetarian peers to be weight and body-conscious, to have tried unhealthy weight-control techniques such as diet pills, laxatives, and vomiting, to have contemplated or attempted suicide, and to have been diagnosed as eating disordered by a doctor (Adolescent Health 2001 29 406-416).
Further work showed that even iron salts injected into a dog's tissues failed to appear in the urine. In fact, it appears that animals and humans have essentially no means of excreting surplus iron from tissues. The balance is maintained by carefully controlled absorption mechanisms that normally admit only as much iron through the gut wall as is required by the tissues. However, even under conditions of acute deficiency, no more than 20 percent of iron in foodstuffs can be absorbed, and normally it may be only 1 to 2 percent. Mild anemia remains a problem in many parts of the world, particularly for women on mainly vegetarian diets. They generally eat less than men but have a greater need for iron because of their loss of menstrual blood.
Of course, differences among communities in the incidence of colon cancer can be explained by things other than diet. However, genetics does not appear to be one of them, because, in general, after two generations, emigrant groups seem to have a disease pattern similar to that of their hosts. Moreover, some studies have confirmed the importance of diet in colon cancer there tend to be fewer cases among vegetarians than among other groups. Vegetarians obviously have a lower intake of fat and animal protein than do others, and they consume more vegetables and more fiber.
Vitamin B-12 assists in the formation of red blood cells and the normal functioning of your nervous system and is required for the synthesis of DNA (your genetic resume). Because B-12 is only found in foods of animal origin, strict vegetarians might need to take a supplement to avoid a deficiency. Furthermore, this unique vitamin needs the help of another substance called intrinsic factor to be absorbed. Because intrinsic factor is made by the lining of the stomach, people with gastrointestinal disorders (especially found in the elderly) might need to get B-12 shots directly into the bloodstream. Symptoms of B-12 deficiency include nervous disorders and pernicious anemia.
Since a very high intake of carbohydrates is recommended, the diets of athletes will mostly be based on vegetable food and hence the diet is likely to be semi- or totally vegetarian. It is difficult to design a vegetarian diet, especially a vegan diet (100 vegetable), which is sufficient in essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals. The latter applies especially to iron, zinc, calcium and vitamins D and B xv In a lacto-ovovegetarian diet it is relatively easy to obtain essential amino acids, vitamin Bj2 and calcium, but iron intake is still a problem. This is primarily due to the fact that non-heme iron which is found in vegetables is more difficult to absorb than heme iron which is found in meat 23 . A vegetarian diet may reduce concentrations of sex hormones even when ideally balanced 13,14a , but the long-term effects on performance of a vegetarian diet have not been shown i4a,24 .
May use if lactase-deficient vegetarian, galactosemic, or allergic to cow's milk.+ been reported in breastfed infants, infants with darker skin pigmentation, and even older children with minimal exposure to sunlight. Consequently, all breastfed infants, partially breastfed, non-breastfed infants, and older children ingesting less than 1000 mL day of vitamin D-fortified formula or milk should receive 400 IU day of supplemental vitamin D daily beginning within the first few days of life until the infant or child is ingesting 1000 mL day of vitamin D-forti-fied formula or milk (AAP, 2009). Higher doses of vitamin D may be required in children with chronic fat malabsorption. Vitamin B12 supplementation should be given to breastfed infants whose mothers are strict vegetarians. Healthy children eating a varied diet usually do not require a multivitamin supplement. Children who do not eat dairy products, meat, or eggs require supplemental vitamin B12 and are at risk for vitamin D deficiency,...
As an example of a metabolic regimen, the Gerson diet is essentially vegetarian. Raw-liver juice, formerly part of the therapy, was abandoned by contemporary Gerson therapists in 1989 because of contaminants found in commercially available liver. Each patient is given about twenty pounds of fruit and vegetables a day, typically consumed in the form of pure carrot and apple juices.
This is the expression of the hydrogen ion concentration. A pH above 7.0 is alkaline while a pH below 7.0 is acidic. False results may occur if the sample is not kept cool and covered. Urine pH is affected by diet carnivorous animals have acid urine while animals that eat a vegetarian diet have alkaline
If metabolites or the serum gastrin levels are elevated, a Schilling test should be performed to evaluate for the presence of cobalamin malabsorption. Technically, patients with classic pernicious anemia have an abnormal test result when radioactive cobalamin alone is given by mouth (Part I of the Schilling test). This abnormality is corrected when the test is repeated with intrinsic factor (Part II of the Schilling test). Abnormally low secretion of cobalamin in Part II of the Schilling test indicates an intestinal cause for the cobalamin malabsorption, such as inflammatory bowel disease. Part II of the Schilling test may be repeated, after giving antibiotics or vermicides to exclude bacterial overgrowth (so-called blind loop syndrome) or fish tapeworm infestation due to Diphyllobothrium latum. Normal results on Part I of the test in a patient with cobalamin deficiency may be observed in total vegetarians. It may also occur in patients with food-cobalamin malabsorption who show...
Carnitine is a water-soluble antioxidant derived mostly from the human diet. Some sources include fish, meat, poultry, and dairy products. It is formed from the biosynthesis of lysine and methionine. Carnitine is found in nearly all cells of the body and is essential in sperm energy production by transporting long-chain fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria. In addition, carnitine is involved in the removal of cytotoxic compounds from the cell. Normally, the body produces a sufficient amount of carnitine to meet daily needs however, in some cases individuals are incapable of producing enough. For instance, vegetarians were found to be significantly deficient in carnitine as opposed to an omnivorous control group 47 .
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