Urinary obstruction

Commonly caused by 'stones' (calculi or uroliths Fig. 22.7). The formation of calculi, or urolithiasis, is complicated but is considered to be due to high concentrations of salts in the body. In dogs and cats 50 of uroliths are struvite, composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate salts known as triple phosphate. Other calculi may be made of oxalate, urate, uric acid or cystine (Table 22.3). Often an incidental finding in dogs and cats. More common in bitches than male dogs. Bacterial infection...

Electromagnetic spectrum

X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is composed of energy waves. Contained within the electromagnetic spectrum are radio waves, ultraviolet light, visible light and cosmic rays, as well as X-rays and gamma rays (Fig. 32.2). 1 km 10 cm 10-2 cm 10-4 cm 10-6 cm 10-9 cm 1013 cm -------Wavelength ray Fig. 32.2 The electromagnetic spectrum ray Fig. 32.2 The electromagnetic spectrum Every wave has a different wavelength and frequency. The wavelength is the distance from the peak of...

Recommended reading

Knottenbelt C M, Busby W 1999 Laboratory tests. In Moore M, Simpson G (eds) Manual of veterinary nursing. British Small Animal Veterinary Association. Oxford This chapter covers a wide range of laboratory procedures in a well illustrated and easy-to-read manner. Papasouliotis K 2002 Atlas of canine haematology. Nova Professional Media, Oxford A super little book that describes normal blood cell morphology in the dog and includes many coloured photographs. It also includes normal ranges of...

Canine hip dysplasia a multifactorial problem

Unfortunately, some serious disorders are not caused by a single gene or even a combination of genetic effects (poly-genic). There may be an environmental factor predisposing animals to a disease, i.e. the disease is multifactorial. One of these diseases is canine hip dysplasia. Others include epilepsy, autoimmune diseases, heart disease and some forms of cancer. Hip dysplasia is a major congenital canine health problem. Large pedigree dogs such as labradors are more prone to it but smaller...

Feeding and fluid intake

A significant proportion of hospitalized geriatric patients will be suffering with one or more conditions so the history is a significant factor when formulating a nursing plan. Part of the treatment will be achieved through effective dietary management. Common examples include elderly dogs with heart disease or old cats with renal or hepatic disease (see Ch. 11). Obesity may also be a problem, particularly in geriatric dogs, who usually take less exercise but their owners continue feeding the...

Transmission Direct contact with ocular discharges Incubation period 310 days

Pathogenesis The virus replicates within the point of entry, the eyes and mouth. Clinical signs Unilateral conjunctivitis which can progress to bilateral. Mild rhinitis. Diagnosis Conjunctival scrapes swabs. Treatment topical and systemic antibiotics - to be given over a period of weeks. All in-contact cats need to be treated to control further outbreaks. Chlamydia is sensitive to disinfectants, so kennels must be thoroughly cleaned. Prevention Vaccination of animals in contact with Chlamydia...

The effect on human health

It is a popular misconception among non-pet-owners that people who keep pets are socially and emotionally inept, but studies have revealed that the majority of pet owners are normal people whose social skills are enhanced by keeping animals. The observation that animals facilitate communication with strangers (Hunt et al 1992) is a point that can be endorsed by anyone who has walked a dog in a park in London, a city renowned for its unfriendliness (Fig. 1.1). In most cases, it is the common...

Structure

Some features of skin vary depending on the area of the body but the basic structure is always the same. It is tough, stretch-able and of varying thickness, e.g. thickest where it is most exposed such as the footpads of the dog. It is also thicker over Fig. 4.48 Position of puppy during normal birth (a) Anterior presentation (b) Posterior presentation Buttocks and tail entering birth canal Fig. 4.49 Incorrect presentation (a) Downward flexion of the head (b) Sideways deviation of the head (c)...

Kennel services

Ventilation is one of the most important factors when designing any form of animal housing. It is important to avoid draughts at ground level, which will chill animals, but a through flow of air must be maintained to prevent a build-up of bacteria and reduce the transmission of airborne infection. Good ventilation will remove exhaled gases and fumes from excreta, ammonia and methane, leaving the air clean and odourless. The optimum air changes per hour are 6-12, depending on the number of...

Energy requirements

The basal energy requirement (BER) is the amount of energy expended while asleep, 12-18 h after feeding in a ther-moneutral environment. The maintenance energy requirement (MER) is the amount of energy required by a moderately active animal in its daily search for and utilization of food (Table 10.1). It does not include the energy required for growth, repair, pregnancy, lactation or work. Table 10.2 Daily energy requirements for cats and dogs Table 10.2 Daily energy requirements for cats and...

Scar formation

During epidermal growth new collagen is laid down. This is continually remodelled up to 2 years after the original incident. Once the wound cavity is filled the wound undergoes secondary wound contraction and the size of the scar is reduced. Open wounds can take weeks or even months to heal, depending on the severity of the initial injury. These wounds are described as healing by second intention. Wounds that are closed surgically with good apposition of the skin edges heal by first intention....

Dexamethasone suppression test

A high- or low-dose dexamethasone test is used to aid diagnosis of Cushing's disease. A blood sample is taken and cortisol levels are measured. Intravenous dexamethasone is administered and blood cortisol levels are measured at 3 and Fig. 22.14 Dog with Cushing's disease Fig. 22.14 Dog with Cushing's disease 8 h following injection. In the normal animal, dexametha-sone suppresses adrenal function and an absence of cortisol is found in blood following administration of dexamethasone. In the...

Bereavement

A pet owner often suffers a similar grieving process to someone who is mourning for another human being. The characteristic stages of grief include Shock - a feeling of numbness and disbelief Disorganisation - the bereaved person may find difficulty doing the simplest task Denial - expecting the deceased to return Depression - usually when the loss becomes reality Guilt - both real and imagined, e.g. the feeling of having been neglectful or having had angry thoughts and feelings towards the...

Vaccines toxoids antitoxins and antisera

A vaccine is a substance given to stimulate active immunity against a known disease or diseases. They may be live, con taining microorganisms that are similar to the pathogen, or the pathogen may have been manipulated to render it safe for use (attenuated) so that it stimulates a suitable immune response but does not cause the disease. Killed or dead vaccines contain inactivated pathogen - these tend to be less effective than live vaccines and may contain an adjuvant to enhance their effect....

Table 3112 Common urinary crystalsContd

PH of urine in which crystals are deposited Uric acid. Diamond or rhomboidal in shape Ammonium urate. 'Thorn-apple'-shaped Acidic They are more likely to be found if freshly collected urine is allowed to stand. The presence of increased numbers of crystals depends on the pH, concentration of the urine and the solubility of the salts in the urine. Various conditions can influence crystal production, including genetic predisposition, bacterial infection, diet, concurrent illnesses and breed, e.g....

Large caged birds eg cockatiels cockatoos and parrots

The larger caged birds have powerful hooked beaks and can give a very nasty bite. They can become distressed, so Fig. 15.9 Catching a small parrot with the aid of a towel Fig. 15.9 Catching a small parrot with the aid of a towel dimming the light and reducing the noise will reduce this. Remove any toys or accessories from the cage to allow easier and less stressful capture. The use of a towel or small blanket will enable you to catch the larger birds, remembering not to hold them too tightly,...

Posthibernation anorexia

This is associated with the Mediterranean tortoises, because the climate in the UK is not suitable for these species and because the traditional methods of tortoise keeping are flawed. The majority of the wild-caught tortoises that are still alive in the UK are barely surviving and those that do survive 90100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 Carapace length In millimetres Fig. 33.16 Growth of healthy Mediterranean tortoises using the Jackson ratio have darker shells that absorb heat more...

Nutrition and feeding

Analisis Feed Mynah Bird

Good health and performance is achieved by providing a balanced palatable diet that is appropriate to the species. This is vital in the bird, as the shape of the beak is designed to cope with a certain type of food and if the wrong food is provided the bird may be physically unable to eat it (see Ch. 15). As in reptiles, there is little scientific analysis of the nutritional needs of caged birds. Proprietary foods have been tested 'in house' with little scrutiny from outside bodies and until...

Periodontal probing depth

The depth of the sulcus can be assessed by gently inserting a graduated periodontal probe until resistance is encountered Fig. 26.9 Gingivitis is inflammation of the gingiva, which manifests as reddening, swelling and often bleeding of the gingival margin Fig. 26.9 Gingivitis is inflammation of the gingiva, which manifests as reddening, swelling and often bleeding of the gingival margin at the base of the sulcus. The depth from the free gingival margin to the base of the sulcus is measured in...

Potential complications

Recumbent Patient

The successful recovery of these patients depends not only on specialized equipment and resources but on being able to predict potential complications and implement the correct nursing care to reduce the risk of them occurring. Fig. 18.13 Use of a doughnut bandage to pad bony prominences in a recumbent patient Fig. 18.13 Use of a doughnut bandage to pad bony prominences in a recumbent patient vated without being directly in contact with anything, thus minimizing further abrasion while allowing...

Bronchodilators

These are agents that cause the smooth muscle of the terminal bronchioles to relax, thus counteracting broncho-constriction and narrowing of the airway diameter. Two main types of bronchodilator are used in veterinary medicine Beta-agonists - stimulate p receptors. There are two types of p receptor - P1 and P2. The former are found elsewhere in the body, including in the heart, so non-selective beta-agonists may have unwanted side effects, such as arrhythmias and tachycardia. p2 receptors are...

Acquired immunity

This form of immunity is acquired by the animal continuously throughout its life. It is also referred to as specific immunity, as it has a definite role to play in combating specific infectious diseases. Acquired immunity involves the development of specific antibodies in response to attack by specific antigens. For example, canine parvovirus antibodies will be produced by the lymphocytes in response to infection with canine parvovirus. It can be further classified as follows In this case,...

Hamsters mice rats and ferrets

Most small mammals, with the exception of the guinea pig, are born hairless, deaf, blind and completely reliant on the mother, i.e. they are altricial. The mother feeds her young and will wean at the appropriate time. Very little human interference is necessary once parturition is complete. If the young are rejected, which may occur if the nest is disturbed by the male or by human interference, then bottle-feeding and carcinomas), sebaceous glands, kidney and adrenal glands. In rats, common...